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Nutrients 2015, 7(4), 2930-2946; doi:10.3390/nu7042930

The Role of Microbial Amino Acid Metabolism in Host Metabolism

Department of Surgery, Maastricht University Medical Center, PO Box 616, 6200 MD Maastricht, The Netherlands
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Received: 20 February 2015 / Revised: 21 March 2015 / Accepted: 1 April 2015 / Published: 16 April 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microbiome and Human Health)
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Abstract

Disruptions in gut microbiota composition and function are increasingly implicated in the pathogenesis of obesity, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes mellitus. The functional output of the gut microbiota, including short-chain fatty acids and amino acids, are thought to be important modulators underlying the development of these disorders. Gut bacteria can alter the bioavailability of amino acids by utilization of several amino acids originating from both alimentary and endogenous proteins. In turn, gut bacteria also provide amino acids to the host. This could have significant implications in the context of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus, conditions associated with elevated systemic concentrations of certain amino acids, in particular the aromatic and branched-chain amino acids. Moreover, several amino acids released by gut bacteria can serve as precursors for the synthesis of short-chain fatty acids, which also play a role in the development of obesity. In this review, we aim to compile the available evidence on the contribution of microbial amino acids to host amino acid homeostasis, and to assess the role of the gut microbiota as a determinant of amino acid and short-chain fatty acid perturbations in human obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus. View Full-Text
Keywords: amino acids; short-chain fatty acids; gut microbiota; obesity; type 2 diabetes mellitus amino acids; short-chain fatty acids; gut microbiota; obesity; type 2 diabetes mellitus
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Neis, E.P.J.G.; Dejong, C.H.C.; Rensen, S.S. The Role of Microbial Amino Acid Metabolism in Host Metabolism. Nutrients 2015, 7, 2930-2946.

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