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Nutrients 2015, 7(4), 2731-2747; doi:10.3390/nu7042731

Egg Phospholipids and Cardiovascular Health

Department of Nutritional Sciences, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT 06269, USA
Received: 3 March 2015 / Revised: 25 March 2015 / Accepted: 3 April 2015 / Published: 13 April 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Egg Consumption and Human Health)
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Abstract

Eggs are a major source of phospholipids (PL) in the Western diet. Dietary PL have emerged as a potential source of bioactive lipids that may have widespread effects on pathways related to inflammation, cholesterol metabolism, and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) function. Based on pre-clinical studies, egg phosphatidylcholine (PC) and sphingomyelin appear to regulate cholesterol absorption and inflammation. In clinical studies, egg PL intake is associated with beneficial changes in biomarkers related to HDL reverse cholesterol transport. Recently, egg PC was shown to be a substrate for the generation of trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO), a gut microbe-dependent metabolite associated with increased cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. More research is warranted to examine potential serum TMAO responses with chronic egg ingestion and in different populations, such as diabetics. In this review, the recent basic science, clinical, and epidemiological findings examining egg PL intake and risk of CVD are summarized. View Full-Text
Keywords: atherosclerosis; cardiovascular disease; egg; HDL; phosphatidylcholine; phospholipids; sphingomyelin; TMAO atherosclerosis; cardiovascular disease; egg; HDL; phosphatidylcholine; phospholipids; sphingomyelin; TMAO
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Blesso, C.N. Egg Phospholipids and Cardiovascular Health. Nutrients 2015, 7, 2731-2747.

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