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Nutrients 2015, 7(11), 9558-9572; doi:10.3390/nu7115481

Dietary Intake according to Gender and Education: A Twenty-Year Trend in a Swiss Adult Population

1
Department of Internal Medicine, Internal Medicine, Lausanne University Hospital (CHUV), Lausanne 1010, Switzerland
2
Institute of Social and Preventive Medicine (IUMSP), Lausanne University Hospital, Lausanne 1011, Switzerland
3
Unit of Population Epidemiology, Division of Primary Care Medicine, Department of Community Medicine, Primary Care and Emergency Medicine, Geneva University Hospitals, Geneva 1205, Switzerland
4
Department of Epidemiology, Rollins School of Public Health, Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 10 August 2015 / Revised: 21 September 2015 / Accepted: 9 November 2015 / Published: 18 November 2015
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Abstract

We assessed trends in dietary intake according to gender and education using repeated cross-sectional, population-based surveys conducted between 1993 and 2012 in Geneva, Switzerland (17,263 participants, 52.0 ± 10.6 years, 48% male). In 1993–1999, higher educated men had higher monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA), carotene and vitamin D intakes than lower educated men, and the differences decreased in 2006–2012. In 1993–1999, higher educated women had higher fiber, iron, carotene, vitamin D and alcohol intakes than lower educated women, and the differences decreased in 2006–2012. Total energy, polyunsaturated fatty acids, retinol and alcohol intakes decreased, while mono/disaccharides, MUFA and carotene intake increased in both genders. Lower educated men had stronger decreases in saturated fatty acid (SFA) and calcium intakes than higher educated men: multivariate-adjusted slope and 95% confidence interval −0.11 (−0.15; −0.06) vs. −0.03 (−0.08; 0.02) g/day/year for SFA and −5.2 (−7.8; −2.7) vs. −1.03 (−3.8; 1.8) mg/day/year for calcium, p for interaction <0.05. Higher educated women had a greater decrease in iron intake than lower educated women: −0.03 (−0.04; −0.02) vs. −0.01 (−0.02; 0.00) mg/day/year, p for interaction = 0.002. We conclude that, in Switzerland, dietary intake evolved similarly between 1993 and 2012 in both educational groups. Educational differences present in 1993 persisted in 2012. View Full-Text
Keywords: nutrients; trends; epidemiology; public health; adult; educational level; gender; population-based study; Switzerland nutrients; trends; epidemiology; public health; adult; educational level; gender; population-based study; Switzerland
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Marques-Vidal, P.; Rousi, E.; Paccaud, F.; Gaspoz, J.-M.; Theler, J.-M.; Bochud, M.; Stringhini, S.; Guessous, I. Dietary Intake according to Gender and Education: A Twenty-Year Trend in a Swiss Adult Population. Nutrients 2015, 7, 9558-9572.

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