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Nutrients 2015, 7(11), 8905-8915; doi:10.3390/nu7115443

Menaquinone-7 Supplementation to Reduce Vascular Calcification in Patients with Coronary Artery Disease: Rationale and Study Protocol (VitaK-CAC Trial)

1
Department of Internal Medicine, Maastricht University Medical Centre (MUMC+), Maastricht 6229HX, The Netherlands
2
Department of Internal Medicine, Zuyderland Medical Centre, Sittard 6162BG, The Netherlands
3
Department of Biochemistry, Cardiovascular Research Institute Maastricht (CARIM), University of Maastricht, Maastricht 6229ER, The Netherlands
4
Departments of Cardiology and Radiology, Maastricht University Medical Centre (MUMC+), Maastricht 6229HX, The Netherlands
5
Group VitaK, Maastricht University, Maastricht 6229EV, The Netherlands
6
Department of Cardiology, VieCuri Medical Centre, Venlo 5912 BL, The Netherlands
7
Department of Radiology, VieCuri Medical Centre, Venlo 5912BL, The Netherlands
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 5 August 2015 / Revised: 8 October 2015 / Accepted: 10 October 2015 / Published: 28 October 2015
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [363 KB, uploaded 28 October 2015]   |  

Abstract

Coronary artery calcification (CAC) develops early in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and is a strong and independent predictor of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Arterial calcification is caused by an imbalance in calcification regulatory mechanisms. An important inhibitor of calcification is vitamin K-dependent matrix Gla protein (MGP). Both preclinical and clinical studies have shown that inhibition of the vitamin K-cycle by vitamin K antagonists (VKA) results in elevated uncarboxylated MGP (ucMGP) and subsequently in extensive arterial calcification. This led us to hypothesize that vitamin K supplementation may slow down the progression of calcification. To test this, we designed the VitaK-CAC trial which analyses effects of menaquinone-7 (MK-7) supplementation on progression of CAC. The trial is a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial including patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). Patients with a baseline Agatston CAC-score between 50 and 400 will be randomized to an intervention-group (360 microgram MK-7) or a placebo group. Treatment duration will be 24 months. The primary endpoint is the difference in CAC-score progression between both groups. Secondary endpoints include changes in arterial structure and function, and associations with biomarkers. We hypothesize that treatment with MK-7 will slow down or arrest the progression of CAC and that this trial may lead to a treatment option for vascular calcification and subsequent CVD. View Full-Text
Keywords: vascular calcification; coronary artery calcification; matrix gla protein; vitamin K2; menaquinone-7 vascular calcification; coronary artery calcification; matrix gla protein; vitamin K2; menaquinone-7
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Vossen, L.M.; Schurgers, L.J.; van Varik, B.J.; Kietselaer, B.L.J.H.; Vermeer, C.; Meeder, J.G.; Rahel, B.M.; van Cauteren, Y.J.M.; Hoffland, G.A.; Rennenberg, R.J.M.W.; Reesink, K.D.; de Leeuw, P.W.; Kroon, A.A. Menaquinone-7 Supplementation to Reduce Vascular Calcification in Patients with Coronary Artery Disease: Rationale and Study Protocol (VitaK-CAC Trial). Nutrients 2015, 7, 8905-8915.

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