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Nutrients 2015, 7(10), 8602-8614; doi:10.3390/nu7105413

Four Models Including Fish, Seafood, Red Meat and Enriched Foods to Achieve Australian Dietary Recommendations for n-3 LCPUFA for All Life-Stages

1
Nutrition Research Australia, Level 13/167 Macquarie St, Sydney, NSW 2000, Australia
2
CSIRO and consultant, Adelaide, SA 5000, Australia
3
School of Medicine, University of Wollongong, Northfields Ave, Wollongong, NSW 2522, Australia
Deceased in December 2012.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 31 August 2015 / Revised: 25 September 2015 / Accepted: 8 October 2015 / Published: 19 October 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue DHA for Optimal Health)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [508 KB, uploaded 20 October 2015]   |  

Abstract

Populations are not meeting recommended intakes of omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LCPUFA). The aim was (i) to develop a database on n-3 LCPUFA enriched products; (ii) to undertake dietary modelling exercise using four dietary approaches to meet the recommendations and (iii) to determine the cost of the models. Six n-3 LCPUFA enriched foods were identified. Fish was categorised by n-3 LCPUFA content (mg/100 g categories as “excellent” “good” and “moderate”). The four models to meet recommended n-3 LCPUFA intakes were (i) fish only; (ii) moderate fish (with red meat and enriched foods); (iii) fish avoiders (red meat and enriched foods only); and (iv) lacto-ovo vegetarian diet (enriched foods only). Diets were modelled using the NUTTAB2010 database and n-3 LCPUFA were calculated and compared to the Suggested Dietary Targets (SDT). The cost of meeting these recommendations was calculated per 100 mg n-3 LCPUFA. The SDT were achieved for all life-stages with all four models. The weekly food intake in number of serves to meet the n-3 LCPUFA SDT for all life-stages for each dietary model were: (i) 2 “excellent” fish; (ii) 1 “excellent” and 1 “good” fish, and depending on life-stage, 3–4 lean red meat, 0–2 eggs and 3–26 enriched foods; (iii) 4 lean red meat, and 20–59 enriched foods; (iv) 37–66 enriched foods. Recommended intakes of n-3 LCPUFA were easily met by the consumption of fish, which was the cheapest source of n-3 LCPUFA. Other strategies may be required to achieve the recommendations including modifying the current food supply through feeding practices, novel plant sources and more enriched foods. View Full-Text
Keywords: omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LCPUFA); recommended intakes; suggested dietary target intakes; omega-3 (n-3) enriched foods; dietary modelling omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LCPUFA); recommended intakes; suggested dietary target intakes; omega-3 (n-3) enriched foods; dietary modelling
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Fayet-Moore, F.; Baghurst, K.; Meyer, B.J. Four Models Including Fish, Seafood, Red Meat and Enriched Foods to Achieve Australian Dietary Recommendations for n-3 LCPUFA for All Life-Stages. Nutrients 2015, 7, 8602-8614.

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