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Nutrients 2015, 7(10), 8577-8591; doi:10.3390/nu7105415

Longitudinal Study of Cytokine Expression, Lipid Profile and Neuronal Growth Factors in Human Breast Milk from Term and Preterm Deliveries

1
Department of Biotechnology, Institute of Agrochemistry and Food Technology-Spanish National Research Council (IATA-CSIC), Paterna 46980, Valencia, Spain
2
Department of Food Technology, Food Science and Nutrition, Faculty of Veterinary Sciences, Regional Campus of International Excellence “Campus Mare Nostrum”, University of Murcia, Espinardo 30071, Murcia, Spain
3
Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition Section, Department of Pediatrics, University Hospital of Valencia, University of Valencia, Valencia 46010, Spain
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 9 July 2015 / Revised: 8 September 2015 / Accepted: 9 October 2015 / Published: 19 October 2015
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Abstract

Breast milk (BM) is considered as a reference for infant nutrition. The role of bioactive components, such as cytokines, hormones, growth factors (GFs) and fatty acids (FAs) is poorly known, but they might be implicated in immune response development. The aim of this study was to identify the lipid profile and the spectrum of cytokines and neuronal GF in BM samples and analyse the influence of gestational age and lactation time on these components. This study used a longitudinal prospective method for the characterization of cytokines, FAs and GFs global profiles in 120 BM samples from 40 healthy mothers (20 preterm and 20 term) collected as colostrum, transitional and mature milk. The cytokines were analysed by protein array (Ray Bio® Human Cytokine Array G6. Ray Biotech, Inc. Norcross, GA, USA) and the FAs were analysed by gas chromatography. The FA profile was similar between the term and the preterm BM samples. Omega-3-α-linoleic and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and omega-6-linoleic acid were the most abundant in the term and preterm samples during lactation. Omega-3 ETA and omega-3 EPA we observed exclusively in the preterm samples. The cytokine profile showed a different trend based on gestational age. A significantly higher expression of neurotrophic factors was found in the mature preterm milk samples as compared to the mature term samples. Our study is the first to identify the influence and interactions of perinatal factors on cytokine, GFs and FAs in human milk. View Full-Text
Keywords: human milk; breast milk; breastfeeding; fatty acids; cytokines; growth factors; neurotrophic factor; polyunsaturated fatty acids; docosahexaenoic acid human milk; breast milk; breastfeeding; fatty acids; cytokines; growth factors; neurotrophic factor; polyunsaturated fatty acids; docosahexaenoic acid
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Collado, M.C.; Santaella, M.; Mira-Pascual, L.; Martínez-Arias, E.; Khodayar-Pardo, P.; Ros, G.; Martínez-Costa, C. Longitudinal Study of Cytokine Expression, Lipid Profile and Neuronal Growth Factors in Human Breast Milk from Term and Preterm Deliveries. Nutrients 2015, 7, 8577-8591.

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