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Nutrients 2014, 6(6), 2251-2265; doi:10.3390/nu6062251

Are the Dietary Guidelines for Meat, Fat, Fruit and Vegetable Consumption Appropriate for Environmental Sustainability? A Review of the Literature

1
Centre for Industrial and Applied Mathematics, the Barbara Hardy Institute, University of South Australia, Mawson Lakes Boulevard, Mawson Lakes, SA 5095, Australia
2
Integrated Sustainability Analysis, University of Sydney, Sydney, 2000, Australia
3
Nutritional Physiology Research Centre, Sansom Institute for Health Research, University of South Australia, Mawson Lakes Boulevard, Mawson Lakes, SA 5095, Australia
4
School of Pharmacy and Medical Sciences, Division of Health Sciences, University of South Australia, Mawson Lakes Boulevard, Mawson Lakes, SA 5095, Australia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 1 April 2014 / Revised: 19 May 2014 / Accepted: 5 June 2014 / Published: 12 June 2014
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [208 KB, uploaded 12 June 2014]

Abstract

This paper reviews the current literature around the environmental impacts of dietary recommendations. The focus of the review is on collating evidence relating to environmental impacts of the dietary advice found in the World Health Organisation guidelines, and environmental impact literature: reducing the consumption of fat, reducing the consumption of meat-based protein and animal-based foods, and increasing the consumption of fruit and vegetables. The environmental impact of reducing dietary fat intake is unclear, although reducing consumption of the food category of edible fats and oils appears to have little impact. However most, but not all, studies support environmental benefits of a reduced consumption of animal-based foods and increased consumption of fruit and vegetables. In general, it appears that adhering to dietary guidelines reduces impact on the environment, but further study is required to examine the environmental impacts of animal-based foods, and fruit and vegetable intake in depth. View Full-Text
Keywords: environmental impact; diet; food; red meat; animal protein; fat; fruit; vegetables environmental impact; diet; food; red meat; animal protein; fat; fruit; vegetables
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Reynolds, C.J.; Buckley, J.D.; Weinstein, P.; Boland, J. Are the Dietary Guidelines for Meat, Fat, Fruit and Vegetable Consumption Appropriate for Environmental Sustainability? A Review of the Literature. Nutrients 2014, 6, 2251-2265.

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