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Nutrients 2014, 6(4), 1501-1518; doi:10.3390/nu6041501
Review

Vitamin D and Depression: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis Comparing Studies with and without Biological Flaws

Received: 20 March 2014; in revised form: 4 April 2014 / Accepted: 4 April 2014 / Published: 11 April 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vitamin D and Human Health)
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Abstract: Efficacy of Vitamin D supplements in depression is controversial, awaiting further literature analysis. Biological flaws in primary studies is a possible reason meta-analyses of Vitamin D have failed to demonstrate efficacy. This systematic review and meta-analysis of Vitamin D and depression compared studies with and without biological flaws. The systematic review followed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. The literature search was undertaken through four databases for randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Studies were critically appraised for methodological quality and biological flaws, in relation to the hypothesis and study design. Meta-analyses were performed for studies according to the presence of biological flaws. The 15 RCTs identified provide a more comprehensive evidence-base than previous systematic reviews; methodological quality of studies was generally good and methodology was diverse. A meta-analysis of all studies without flaws demonstrated a statistically significant improvement in depression with Vitamin D supplements (+0.78 CI +0.24, +1.27). Studies with biological flaws were mainly inconclusive, with the meta-analysis demonstrating a statistically significant worsening in depression by taking Vitamin D supplements (−1.1 CI −0.7, −1.5). Vitamin D supplementation (≥800 I.U. daily) was somewhat favorable in the management of depression in studies that demonstrate a change in vitamin levels, and the effect size was comparable to that of anti-depressant medication.
Keywords: Vitamin D supplementation; depression; biological plausibility; meta-analysis; systematic review; 25OHD Vitamin D supplementation; depression; biological plausibility; meta-analysis; systematic review; 25OHD
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Spedding, S. Vitamin D and Depression: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis Comparing Studies with and without Biological Flaws. Nutrients 2014, 6, 1501-1518.

AMA Style

Spedding S. Vitamin D and Depression: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis Comparing Studies with and without Biological Flaws. Nutrients. 2014; 6(4):1501-1518.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Spedding, Simon. 2014. "Vitamin D and Depression: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis Comparing Studies with and without Biological Flaws." Nutrients 6, no. 4: 1501-1518.



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