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Nutrients 2014, 6(12), 5819-5838; doi:10.3390/nu6125819

Astaxanthin Supplementation Delays Physical Exhaustion and Prevents Redox Imbalances in Plasma and Soleus Muscles of Wistar Rats

1
Institute of Physical Activity and Sports Sciences (ICAFE), Cruzeiro do Sul University, 01506-000 Sao Paulo, Brazil
2
School of Physical Education and Sports (EEFE), University of Sao Paulo (USP), 05508-900 Sao Paulo, Brazil
3
Free Radical Metabolism Group, Laboratory of Toxicology and Pharmacology, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, NIEHS, Research Triangle Park, Durham, NC 27709, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 4 August 2014 / Revised: 6 November 2014 / Accepted: 13 November 2014 / Published: 12 December 2014
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Abstract

Astaxanthin (ASTA) is a pinkish-orange carotenoid commonly found in marine organisms, especially salmon. ASTA is a powerful antioxidant and suggested to provide benefits for human health, including the inhibition of LDL oxidation, UV-photoprotection, and prophylaxis of bacterial stomach ulcers. Exercise is associated to overproduction of free radicals in muscles and plasma, with pivotal participation of iron ions and glutathione (GSH). Thus, ASTA was studied here as an auxiliary supplement to improve antioxidant defenses in soleus muscles and plasma against oxidative damage induced by exhaustive exercise. Long-term 1 mg ASTA/kg body weight (BW) supplementation in Wistar rats (for 45 days) significantly delayed time to exhaustion by 29% in a swimming test. ASTA supplementation increased scavenging/iron-chelating capacities (TEAC/FRAP) and limited exercise-induced iron overload and its related pro-oxidant effects in plasma of exercising animals. On the other hand, ASTA induced significant mitochondrial Mn-dependent superoxide dismutase and cytosolic glutathione peroxidase antioxidant responses in soleus muscles that, in turn, increased GSH content during exercise, limited oxidative stress, and delayed exhaustion. We also provided significant discussion about a putative “mitochondrial-targeted” action of ASTA based on previous publications and on the positive results found in the highly mitochondrial populated (oxidative-type) soleus muscles here. View Full-Text
Keywords: carotenoid; exercise; iron; uric acid; oxidative stress; mitochondria carotenoid; exercise; iron; uric acid; oxidative stress; mitochondria
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Polotow, T.G.; Vardaris, C.V.; Mihaliuc, A.R.; Gonçalves, M.S.; Pereira, B.; Ganini, D.; Barros, M.P. Astaxanthin Supplementation Delays Physical Exhaustion and Prevents Redox Imbalances in Plasma and Soleus Muscles of Wistar Rats. Nutrients 2014, 6, 5819-5838.

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