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Nutrients 2014, 6(11), 4856-4871; doi:10.3390/nu6114856

Glycyrrhizic Acid Can Attenuate Metabolic Deviations Caused by a High-Sucrose Diet without Causing Water Retention in Male Sprague-Dawley Rats

1
School of Science, Monash University Sunway Campus, Jalan Lagoon Selatan, Bandar Sunway, Selangor Darul Ehsan 46150, Malaysia
2
School of Medicine and Health Sciences, Monash University Sunway Campus, Jalan Lagoon Selatan, Bandar Sunway, Selangor Darul Ehsan 46150, Malaysia
3
The Boden Institute of Obesity, Nutrition, Exercise and Eating Disorders, Sydney Medical School, The University of Sydney, Camperdown, New South Wales 2006, Australia
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 4 June 2014 / Revised: 17 August 2014 / Accepted: 22 September 2014 / Published: 4 November 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition in Medicine)
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Abstract

Glycyrrhizic acid (GA) ameliorates many components of the metabolic syndrome, but its potential therapeutic use is marred by edema caused by inhibition of renal 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 2 (11β-HSD2). We assessed whether 100 mg/kg per day GA administered orally could promote metabolic benefits without causing edema in rats fed on a high-sucrose diet. Groups of eight male rats were fed on one of three diets for 28 days: normal diet, a high-sucrose diet, or a high-sucrose diet supplemented with GA. Rats were then culled and renal 11β-HSD2 activity, as well as serum sodium, potassium, angiotensin II and leptin levels were determined. Histological analyses were performed to assess changes in adipocyte size in visceral and subcutaneous depots, as well as hepatic and renal tissue morphology. This dosing paradigm of GA attenuated the increases in serum leptin levels and visceral, but not subcutaneous adipocyte size caused by the high-sucrose diet. Although GA decreased renal 11β-HSD2 activity, it did not affect serum electrolyte or angiotensin II levels, indicating no onset of edema. Furthermore, there were no apparent morphological changes in the liver or kidney, indicating no toxicity. In conclusion, it is possible to reap metabolic benefits of GA without edema using the current dosage and treatment time. View Full-Text
Keywords: glycyrrhizic acid; metabolic syndrome; high-sucrose diet; 11β-HSD2; side effects; edema; angiotensin II; electrolytes glycyrrhizic acid; metabolic syndrome; high-sucrose diet; 11β-HSD2; side effects; edema; angiotensin II; electrolytes
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Fernando, H.A.; Chandramouli, C.; Rosli, D.; Lam, Y.L.; Yong, S.T.; Yaw, H.P.; Ton, S.H.; Kadir, K.A.; Sainsbury, A. Glycyrrhizic Acid Can Attenuate Metabolic Deviations Caused by a High-Sucrose Diet without Causing Water Retention in Male Sprague-Dawley Rats. Nutrients 2014, 6, 4856-4871.

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