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Nutrients 2014, 6(11), 4706-4719; doi:10.3390/nu6114706

The Influence of Early Life Nutrition on Epigenetic Regulatory Mechanisms of the Immune System

1
Pediatric Food Allergy Unit, Department of Translational Medical Science, University of Naples Federico II, via S. Pansini 5, 80131 Naples, Italy
2
European Laboratory for the Investigation of Food Induced Diseases, via S. Pansini 5, 80131 Naples, Italy
3
CEINGE—Advanced Biotechnologies, University of Naples Federico II, via S. Pansini 5, 80131 Naples, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 22 July 2014 / Revised: 18 October 2014 / Accepted: 20 October 2014 / Published: 28 October 2014
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Abstract

The immune system is exquisitely sensitive to environmental changes. Diet constitutes one of the major environmental factors that exerts a profound effect on immune system development and function. Epigenetics is the study of mitotically heritable, yet potentially reversible, molecular modifications to DNA and chromatin without alteration to the underlying DNA sequence. Nutriepigenomics is an emerging discipline examining the role of dietary influences on gene expression. There is increasing evidence that the epigenetic mechanisms that regulate gene expression during immune differentiation are directly affected by dietary factors or indirectly through modifications in gut microbiota induced by different dietary habits. Short-chain fatty acids, in particular butyrate, produced by selected bacteria stains within gut microbiota, are crucial players in this network. View Full-Text
Keywords: gut microbiota; short-chain fatty acids; butyrate; food allergy; pregnancy; children; DNA methylation; miRNA; histone deacetylase inhibitors gut microbiota; short-chain fatty acids; butyrate; food allergy; pregnancy; children; DNA methylation; miRNA; histone deacetylase inhibitors
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Paparo, L.; di Costanzo, M.; di Scala, C.; Cosenza, L.; Leone, L.; Nocerino, R.; Canani, R.B. The Influence of Early Life Nutrition on Epigenetic Regulatory Mechanisms of the Immune System. Nutrients 2014, 6, 4706-4719.

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