Nutrients 2014, 6(1), 289-303; doi:10.3390/nu6010289
Article

Greenhouse Gas Emissions and the Australian Diet—Comparing Dietary Recommendations with Average Intakes

1 Animal, Food and Health Sciences, Commonwealth Scientific Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO), P.O. BOX 10041, Adelaide 5000, Australia 2 Sustainable Agricultural Flagship, Commonwealth Scientific Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO), Bayview Avenue, Clayton South, Victoria 3169, Australia 3 School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, The University of New South Wales, Sydney 2052, Australia 4 Ecosystem Sciences, Commonwealth Scientific Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO), Canberra 2600, Australia
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 22 October 2013; in revised form: 22 November 2013 / Accepted: 18 December 2013 / Published: 8 January 2014
PDF Full-text Download PDF Full-Text [226 KB, uploaded 8 January 2014 13:41 CET]
Abstract: Nutrition guidelines now consider the environmental impact of food choices as well as maintaining health. In Australia there is insufficient data quantifying the environmental impact of diets, limiting our ability to make evidence-based recommendations. This paper used an environmentally extended input-output model of the economy to estimate greenhouse gas emissions (GHGe) for different food sectors. These data were augmented with food intake estimates from the 1995 Australian National Nutrition Survey. The GHGe of the average Australian diet was 14.5 kg carbon dioxide equivalents (CO2e) per person per day. The recommended dietary patterns in the Australian Dietary Guidelines are nutrient rich and have the lowest GHGe (~25% lower than the average diet). Food groups that made the greatest contribution to diet-related GHGe were red meat (8.0 kg CO2e per person per day) and energy-dense, nutrient poor “non-core” foods (3.9 kg CO2e). Non-core foods accounted for 27% of the diet-related emissions. A reduction in non-core foods and consuming the recommended serves of core foods are strategies which may achieve benefits for population health and the environment. These data will enable comparisons between changes in dietary intake and GHGe over time, and provide a reference point for diets which meet population nutrient requirements and have the lowest GHGe.
Keywords: diet; sustainability; environmental impacts; food security; nutrient security; greenhouse gas emissions

Article Statistics

Load and display the download statistics.

Citations to this Article

Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Hendrie, G.A.; Ridoutt, B.G.; Wiedmann, T.O.; Noakes, M. Greenhouse Gas Emissions and the Australian Diet—Comparing Dietary Recommendations with Average Intakes. Nutrients 2014, 6, 289-303.

AMA Style

Hendrie GA, Ridoutt BG, Wiedmann TO, Noakes M. Greenhouse Gas Emissions and the Australian Diet—Comparing Dietary Recommendations with Average Intakes. Nutrients. 2014; 6(1):289-303.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Hendrie, Gilly A.; Ridoutt, Brad G.; Wiedmann, Thomas O.; Noakes, Manny. 2014. "Greenhouse Gas Emissions and the Australian Diet—Comparing Dietary Recommendations with Average Intakes." Nutrients 6, no. 1: 289-303.

Nutrients EISSN 2072-6643 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert