Nutrients 2013, 5(8), 3118-3130; doi:10.3390/nu5083118
Article

A Food Photograph Series for Identifying Portion Sizes of Culturally Specific Dishes in Rural Areas with High Incidence of Oesophageal Cancer

1,* email, 2email, 3,4email, 5email and 6email
Received: 17 June 2013; in revised form: 30 July 2013 / Accepted: 30 July 2013 / Published: 6 August 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutritional Epidemiology)
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract: Rural areas of the Eastern Cape (EC) Province, South Africa have a high incidence of squamous cell oesophageal cancer (OC) and exposure to mycotoxin fumonisin has been associated with increased OC risk. However, to assess exposure to fumonisin in Xhosas—having maize as a staple food—it is necessary to determine the amount of maize consumed per day. A maize-specific food frequency questionnaire (M-FFQ) has recently been developed. This study developed a food photograph (FP) series to improve portion size estimation of maize dishes. Two sets of photographs were developed to be used alongside the validated M-FFQ. The photographs were designed to assist quantification of intakes (portion size photographs) and to facilitate estimation of maize amounts in various combined dishes (ratio photographs) using data from 24 h recalls (n = 159), dishing-up sessions (n = 35), focus group discussions (FGD) (n = 56) and published literature. Five villages in two rural isiXhosa-speaking areas of the EC Province, known to have a high incidence of OC, were randomly selected. Women between the ages of 18–55 years were recruited by snowball sampling and invited to participate. The FP series comprised three portion size photographs (S, M, L) of 21 maize dishes and three ratio photographs of nine combined maize-based dishes. A culturally specific FP series was designed to improve portion size estimation when reporting dietary intake using a newly developed M-FFQ.
Keywords: fumonisin; mycotoxins; oesophageal cancer; food photograph series; maize; dietary intake
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MDPI and ACS Style

Lombard, M.; Steyn, N.; Burger, H.-M.; Charlton, K.; Senekal, M. A Food Photograph Series for Identifying Portion Sizes of Culturally Specific Dishes in Rural Areas with High Incidence of Oesophageal Cancer. Nutrients 2013, 5, 3118-3130.

AMA Style

Lombard M, Steyn N, Burger H-M, Charlton K, Senekal M. A Food Photograph Series for Identifying Portion Sizes of Culturally Specific Dishes in Rural Areas with High Incidence of Oesophageal Cancer. Nutrients. 2013; 5(8):3118-3130.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Lombard, Martani; Steyn, Nelia; Burger, Hester-Mari; Charlton, Karen; Senekal, Marjanne. 2013. "A Food Photograph Series for Identifying Portion Sizes of Culturally Specific Dishes in Rural Areas with High Incidence of Oesophageal Cancer." Nutrients 5, no. 8: 3118-3130.

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