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Nutrients 2013, 5(8), 2901-2923; doi:10.3390/nu5082901
Review

Dietary Omega-3 Fatty Acid Deficiency and High Fructose Intake in the Development of Metabolic Syndrome, Brain Metabolic Abnormalities, and Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

Received: 8 June 2013; in revised form: 24 July 2013 / Accepted: 24 July 2013 / Published: 26 July 2013
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Abstract: Western diets are characterized by both dietary omega-3 fatty acid deficiency and increased fructose intake. The latter found in high amounts in added sugars such as sucrose and high fructose corn syrup (HFCS). Both a low intake of omega-3 fatty acids or a high fructose intake contribute to metabolic syndrome, liver steatosis or non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), promote brain insulin resistance, and increase the vulnerability to cognitive dysfunction. Insulin resistance is the core perturbation of metabolic syndrome. Multiple cognitive domains are affected by metabolic syndrome in adults and in obese adolescents, with volume losses in the hippocampus and frontal lobe, affecting executive function. Fish oil supplementation maintains proper insulin signaling in the brain, ameliorates NAFLD and decreases the risk to metabolic syndrome suggesting that adequate levels of omega-3 fatty acids in the diet can cope with the metabolic challenges imposed by high fructose intake in Western diets which is of major public health importance. This review presents the current status of the mechanisms involved in the development of the metabolic syndrome, brain insulin resistance, and NAFLD a most promising area of research in Nutrition for the prevention of these conditions, chronic diseases, and improvement of Public Health.
Keywords: metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance; dietary omega-3 fatty acid deficiency; high fructose intake; non-alcoholic fatty liver disease; brain insulin resistance; hippocampus; learning; memory; appetite; inflammation; endocannabinoids; neurodegenerative diseases metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance; dietary omega-3 fatty acid deficiency; high fructose intake; non-alcoholic fatty liver disease; brain insulin resistance; hippocampus; learning; memory; appetite; inflammation; endocannabinoids; neurodegenerative diseases
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Simopoulos, A.P. Dietary Omega-3 Fatty Acid Deficiency and High Fructose Intake in the Development of Metabolic Syndrome, Brain Metabolic Abnormalities, and Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease. Nutrients 2013, 5, 2901-2923.

AMA Style

Simopoulos AP. Dietary Omega-3 Fatty Acid Deficiency and High Fructose Intake in the Development of Metabolic Syndrome, Brain Metabolic Abnormalities, and Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease. Nutrients. 2013; 5(8):2901-2923.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Simopoulos, Artemis P. 2013. "Dietary Omega-3 Fatty Acid Deficiency and High Fructose Intake in the Development of Metabolic Syndrome, Brain Metabolic Abnormalities, and Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease." Nutrients 5, no. 8: 2901-2923.


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