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Nutrients 2013, 5(11), 4587-4604; doi:10.3390/nu5114587
Article

Selected Dietary Nutrients and the Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome in Adult Males and Females in Saudi Arabia: A Pilot Study

1,2,3,* , 2
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1 Center of Excellence in Biotechnology Research, King Saud University, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia 2 Biomarkers Research Program, Biochemistry Department, College of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia 3 Clinical Pharmacy Department, College of Pharmacy, King Saud University, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia 4 Prince Mutaib Chair for Biomarkers of Osteoporosis, Biochemistry Department, King Saud University, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia 5 Department of Food Science & Nutrition, College of Food Science & Agriculture, King Saud University, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia 6 College of Applied Medical Sciences, King Saud University, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia 7 Department of Pharmacology and Pharmacy, Li KaShing Faculty of Medicine, 21 Sassoon Road, Hong Kong, China
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 5 September 2013 / Revised: 16 October 2013 / Accepted: 7 November 2013 / Published: 19 November 2013
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Abstract

During the last decade, the rapid economic development in Saudi Arabia resulted in an unbalanced dietary intake pattern within the general population. Consequently, metabolic syndrome was also documented to be highly prevalent in the Middle-East region. We aimed to examine the relationship between selected dietary nutrient intakes and the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in the general adult population of Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. In this cross-sectional study, 185 adult Saudis aged 19 to 60 years (87 males and 98 females (mean age 35.6 ± 13.2 and 37.6 ± 11.7 years, respectively)) were included. The criteria for metabolic syndrome were based on the International Diabetes Foundation (IDF) criteria, and the dietary food intake was assessed by two 24-h dietary recall methods. The odd ratios (ORs) of metabolic syndrome risk across quartiles of selected dietary nutrients were significantly lower for carbohydrates and proteins, as well as for vitamins A, C, E and K, calcium, zinc and magnesium (p < 0.05 for all) in the female group with metabolic syndrome than those without. The pattern of daily dietary intake of selected nutrients among the general population of Saudi Arabia raises concern, and this dietary imbalance could increase the risk of metabolic syndrome, particularly in adult Saudi females.
Keywords: dietary micronutrients; metabolic syndrome; adult females; vitamin; Saudi Arabia dietary micronutrients; metabolic syndrome; adult females; vitamin; Saudi Arabia
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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Al-Daghri, N.M.; Khan, N.; Alkharfy, K.M.; Al-Attas, O.S.; Alokail, M.S.; Alfawaz, H.A.; Alothman, A.; Vanhoutte, P.M. Selected Dietary Nutrients and the Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome in Adult Males and Females in Saudi Arabia: A Pilot Study. Nutrients 2013, 5, 4587-4604.

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