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The Role of Vitamin D Level and Related Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms in Crohn’s Disease
Presbyterian University Mackenzie, R. da Consolacao 930, Sao Paulo 01302-907, Brazil
Discipline of Nutrition, FM&HS, University of Auckland, Private Bag 92019, Auckland 1142, New Zealand
Auckland Cancer Society Research Center, FM&HS, University of Auckland, Private Bag 92019, Auckland 1142, New Zealand
Nutrigenomics New Zealand, University of Auckland, Private Bag 92019, Auckland 1142, New Zealand
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 24 June 2013; in revised form: 19 August 2013 / Accepted: 12 September 2013 / Published: 27 September 2013
Abstract: New Zealand has one of the highest rates of Crohn’s Disease (CD) in the world, and there is much speculation as to why this might be. A high risk of CD has been associated with deficient or insufficient levels of Vitamin D (Vit D), lifestyle as well as various genetic polymorphisms. In this study we sought to analyse the relevance of serum Vit D levels, lifestyle and genotype to CD status. Serum samples were analysed for 25-OH-Vitamin D levels. DNA was isolated from blood and cheek-swabs, and Sequenom and ImmunoChip techniques were used for genotyping. Serum Vit D levels were significantly lower in CD patients (mean = 49.5 mg/L) than those found in controls (mean = 58.9 mg/L, p = 4.74 × 10−6). A total of seven single nucleotide polymorphisms were examined for effects on serum Vit D levels, with adjustment for confounding variables. Two variants: rs731236[A] (VDR) and rs732594[A] (SCUBE3) showed a significant association with serum Vit D levels in CD patients. Four variants: rs7975232[A] (VDR), rs732594[A] (SCUBE3), and rs2980[T] and rs2981[A] (PHF-11) showed a significant association with serum Vit D levels in the control group. This study demonstrates a significant interaction between Vit D levels and CD susceptibility, as well as a significant association between Vit D levels and genotype.
Keywords: vitamin D levels; Crohn’s disease; VDR; SCUBE3; PPP6R3; PHF-11; SNPs; lifestyle
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MDPI and ACS Style
Carvalho, A.Y.O.M.; Bishop, K.S.; Han, D.Y.; Ellett, S.; Jesuthasan, A.; Lam, W.J.; Ferguson, L.R. The Role of Vitamin D Level and Related Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms in Crohn’s Disease. Nutrients 2013, 5, 3898-3909.
Carvalho AYOM, Bishop KS, Han DY, Ellett S, Jesuthasan A, Lam WJ, Ferguson LR. The Role of Vitamin D Level and Related Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms in Crohn’s Disease. Nutrients. 2013; 5(10):3898-3909.
Carvalho, Andre Y.O.M.; Bishop, Karen S.; Han, Dug Y.; Ellett, Stephanie; Jesuthasan, Amalini; Lam, Wen J.; Ferguson, Lynnette R. 2013. "The Role of Vitamin D Level and Related Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms in Crohn’s Disease." Nutrients 5, no. 10: 3898-3909.