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Zinc and Cancer: Implications for LIV-1 in Breast Cancer
Department of Family Medicine, Stony Brook University Hospital Medical Center, Stony Brook, New York, NY 11597, USA
Department of Nutritional Sciences, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT 06268, USA
* Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 3 May 2012; in revised form: 7 June 2012 / Accepted: 27 June 2012 / Published: 4 July 2012
Abstract: Zinc is a trace mineral which is vital for the functioning of numerous cellular processes, is critical for growth, and may play an important role in cancer etiology and outcome. The intracellular levels of this mineral are regulated through the coordinated expression of zinc transporters, which modulate both zinc influx as well as efflux. LIV-1 (ZIP6) was first described in 1988 as an estrogen regulated gene with later work suggesting a role for this transporter in cancer growth and metastasis. Despite evidence of its potential utility as a target gene for cancer prognosis and treatment, LIV-1 has received relatively little attention, with only three prior reviews being published on this topic. Herein, the physiological effects of zinc are reviewed in light of this mineral’s role in cancer growth with specific attention being given to LIV-1 and the potential importance of this transporter to breast cancer etiology.
Keywords: zinc; zinc transporters; cancer; LIV-1; ZIP6
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Cite This Article
MDPI and ACS Style
Grattan, B.J.; Freake, H.C. Zinc and Cancer: Implications for LIV-1 in Breast Cancer. Nutrients 2012, 4, 648-675.
Grattan BJ, Freake HC. Zinc and Cancer: Implications for LIV-1 in Breast Cancer. Nutrients. 2012; 4(7):648-675.
Grattan, Bruce J.; Freake, Hedley C. 2012. "Zinc and Cancer: Implications for LIV-1 in Breast Cancer." Nutrients 4, no. 7: 648-675.