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Zinc Biofortification of Rice in China: A Simulation of Zinc Intake with Different Dietary Patterns
Department of Chronic Disease Control and Prevention, Jiangsu Province Centre for Disease Control and Prevention, Nanjing 210009, China
Division of Human Nutrition, Wageningen University, P.O. Box 8129, 6700 EV Wageningen, The Netherlands
Laboratory for Human Nutrition, ETH Zurich, CH-8092 Zürich, Switzerland
Discipline of Medicine, University of Adelaide, North Terrace Adelaide SA 5005, Australia
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 4 May 2012; in revised form: 4 June 2012 / Accepted: 11 June 2012 / Published: 14 June 2012
Abstract: A cross-sectional survey of 2819 adults aged 20 years and above was undertaken in 2002 in Jiangsu Province. Zinc intake was assessed using a consecutive 3-day 24-h dietary recall method. Insufficient and excess intake was determined according to the Chinese Dietary Recommended Intakes. Four distinct dietary patterns were identified namely “traditional”, “macho”, “sweet tooth”, and “healthy”. Intake of zinc from biofortified rice was simulated at an intermediate zinc concentration (2.7 mg/100 g) and a high zinc concentration (3.8 mg/100 g) in rice. Average total zinc intake was 12.0 ± 3.7 mg/day, and insufficiency of zinc intake was present in 15.4%. Simulated zinc intake from biofortified rice with intermediate and high zinc concentration decreased the prevalence of low zinc intake to 6.5% and 4.4%, respectively. The effect was most pronounced in the “traditional” pattern, with only 0.7% of insufficiency of zinc intake remaining in the highest quartile of the pattern. Zinc intake was inversely associated with the “sweet tooth” pattern. Zinc biofortifed rice improves dietary zinc intake and lowers risk for insufficient zinc intake, especially for subjects with a more “traditional” food pattern, but less for subjects with a “sweet tooth” food pattern.
Keywords: zinc; biofortification; dietary intake; dietary pattern; simulation; China
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Qin, Y.; Melse-Boonstra, A.; Yuan, B.; Pan, X.; Dai, Y.; Zhou, M.; Wegmueller, R.; Zhao, J.; Kok, F.J.; Shi, Z. Zinc Biofortification of Rice in China: A Simulation of Zinc Intake with Different Dietary Patterns. Nutrients 2012, 4, 517-528.
Qin Y, Melse-Boonstra A, Yuan B, Pan X, Dai Y, Zhou M, Wegmueller R, Zhao J, Kok FJ, Shi Z. Zinc Biofortification of Rice in China: A Simulation of Zinc Intake with Different Dietary Patterns. Nutrients. 2012; 4(6):517-528.
Qin, Yu; Melse-Boonstra, Alida; Yuan, Baojun; Pan, Xiaoqun; Dai, Yue; Zhou, Minghao; Wegmueller, Rita; Zhao, Jinkou; Kok, Frans J.; Shi, Zumin. 2012. "Zinc Biofortification of Rice in China: A Simulation of Zinc Intake with Different Dietary Patterns." Nutrients 4, no. 6: 517-528.