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Bone Density Testing: An Under-Utilised and Under-Researched Health Education Tool for Osteoporosis Prevention?
Menzies Research Institute, Private Bag 23, Hobart TAS 7001, Australia
International Public Health Unit, Department of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, Monash University, Alfred Hospital, Melbourne 3004, Australia
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 3 August 2010; in revised form: 18 August 2010 / Accepted: 20 August 2010 / Published: 16 September 2010
Abstract: Feedback of fracture risk based on bone mineral density (BMD) is an under-explored potential osteoporosis education intervention. We performed a randomised controlled trial of either an osteoporosis information leaflet or small group education (the Osteoporosis Prevention and Self-Management Course (OPSMC)), combined with individualised fracture risk feedback in premenopausal women over two years. Women with a mean T-score at spine and hip of < 0 were informed they were at higher risk of fracture in later life and those with T-score ≥ 0 were informed they were not. Women receiving feedback of high fracture risk had a greater increase in femoral neck, but not lumbar spine, BMD compared to the low risk group (1.6% p.a. vs. 0.7% p.a., p = 0.0001). Participation in the OPSMC had no greater effect on BMD than receiving the leaflet. Femoral neck BMD change was associated with starting calcium supplements (1.3% p.a., 95% CI +0.49, +2.17) and self-reported physical activity change (0.7% p.a., 95% CI +0.22, +1.22). Mother’s report of increasing their children’s calcium intake was associated with receiving the OPSMC (OR 2.3, 95% CI 1.4, 3.8) and feedback of high fracture risk (OR 2.0, 95% CI 1.2, 3.3). Fracture risk feedback based on BMD could potentially make an important contribution to osteoporosis prevention but confirmation of long-term benefits and cost effectiveness is needed before implementation can be recommended.
Keywords: osteoporosis; prevention; calcium; physical activity; bone density
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MDPI and ACS Style
Winzenberg, T.; Oldenburg, B.; Jones, G. Bone Density Testing: An Under-Utilised and Under-Researched Health Education Tool for Osteoporosis Prevention? Nutrients 2010, 2, 985-996.
Winzenberg T, Oldenburg B, Jones G. Bone Density Testing: An Under-Utilised and Under-Researched Health Education Tool for Osteoporosis Prevention? Nutrients. 2010; 2(9):985-996.
Winzenberg, Tania; Oldenburg, Brian; Jones, Graeme. 2010. "Bone Density Testing: An Under-Utilised and Under-Researched Health Education Tool for Osteoporosis Prevention?" Nutrients 2, no. 9: 985-996.