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Experimental Evidence for the Effects of Calcium and Vitamin D on Bone: A Review
School of Pharmacy and Medical Sciences, University of South Australia, Adelaide, South Australia 5001, Australia
Endocrine Bone Research Laboratory, Hanson Institute, SA Pathology, Adelaide, South Australia 5000, Australia
Chemical Pathology, SA Pathology, Adelaide, South Australia 5000, Australia
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 3 August 2010; in revised form: 19 August 2010 / Accepted: 23 August 2010 / Published: 17 September 2010
Abstract: Animal models fed low calcium diets demonstrate a negative calcium balance and gross bone loss while the combination of calcium deficiency and oophorectomy enhances overall bone loss. Following oophorectomy the dietary calcium intake required to remain in balance increases some 5 fold, estimated to be approximately 1.3% dietary calcium. In the context of vitamin D and dietary calcium depletion, osteomalacia occurs only when low dietary calcium levels are combined with low vitamin D levels and osteoporosis occurs with either a low level of dietary calcium with adequate vitamin D status or when vitamin D status is low in the presence of adequate dietary calcium intake. Maximum bone architecture and strength is only achieved when an adequate vitamin D status is combined with sufficient dietary calcium to achieve a positive calcium balance. This anabolic effect occurs without a change to intestinal calcium absorption, suggesting dietary calcium and vitamin D have activities in addition to promoting a positive calcium balance. Each of the major bone cell types, osteoblasts, osteoclasts and osteocytes are capable of metabolizing 25 hydroxyvitamin D (25D) to 1,25 dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25D) to elicit biological activities including reduction of bone resorption by osteoclasts and to enhance maturation and mineralization by osteoblasts and osteocytes. Each of these activities is consistent with the actions of adequate circulating levels of 25D observed in vivo.
Keywords: osteomalacia; osteoporosis; dietary calcium; vitamin D; oophorectomy; bone architecture; bone strength; calcium balance
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MDPI and ACS Style
Morris, H.A.; O’Loughlin, P.D.; Anderson, P.H. Experimental Evidence for the Effects of Calcium and Vitamin D on Bone: A Review. Nutrients 2010, 2, 1026-1035.
Morris HA, O’Loughlin PD, Anderson PH. Experimental Evidence for the Effects of Calcium and Vitamin D on Bone: A Review. Nutrients. 2010; 2(9):1026-1035.
Morris, Howard A.; O’Loughlin, Peter D.; Anderson, Paul H. 2010. "Experimental Evidence for the Effects of Calcium and Vitamin D on Bone: A Review." Nutrients 2, no. 9: 1026-1035.