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Nutrients 2018, 10(9), 1297; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10091297

An Active Lifestyle Reinforces the Effect of a Healthy Diet on Cognitive Function: A Population-Based Longitudinal Study

1
Aging Research Center, Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Karolinska Institutet/Stockholm University, Widerströmskahuset, plan 10, Tomtebodavägen 18A, 171 65 Solna, Sweden
2
Stress Research Institute, Stockholm University, 106 91 Stockholm, Sweden
3
Division of Clinical Geriatrics, Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Karolinska Institutet, 141 57 Huddinge, Sweden
4
Institute of Biomedical Technologies-National Research Council Via Fratelli Cervi 93, 20090 Segrate (MI), Italy
5
Stockholm Gerontology Research Center, 113 30 Stockholm, Sweden
6
Department Epidemiology & Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin 300070, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 17 August 2018 / Revised: 10 September 2018 / Accepted: 11 September 2018 / Published: 13 September 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lifestyle Strategies in Cognitive Decline: Focus on Nutrition)
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Abstract

The joint effect of diet and leisure activity on cognitive function remains unknown. We aimed to verify the hypothesis that an active lifestyle reinforces the effect of the Nordic Prudent Dietary Pattern (NPDP) on cognitive function. A total of 2223 dementia-free Swedish adults aged ≥60 with Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) scores ≥27 were followed for an average of 6 years. MMSE was tested during follow-ups. Diet was assessed by food frequency questionnaire. The NPDP index was calculated and tertiled (low, moderate, and high adherence). Participation in physical, mental and social activities was trichotomised (low, moderate, and intense). An active lifestyle was defined based on the participation in each activity. Data were analyzed using mixed-effects models. Moderate-to-high adherence to NPDP was associated with a reduced decline in the MMSE score (β: 0.19, 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 0.14–0.24). This association became stronger when combined with moderate-to-intense physical (β: 0.34, 95% CI: 0.2–0.45), mental (β: 0.29, 95% CI: 0.21–0.37), or social (β: 0.27, 95% CI: 0.19–0.34) activities. An active lifestyle strengthened the effect of NPDP on cognitive function by two times, and further lowered risk of MMSE decline by 30%. Thus, an active lifestyle reinforces the effect of a healthy diet on preserved cognitive function, and further decreases the risk of cognitive decline. View Full-Text
Keywords: the Nordic Prudent Dietary Pattern; leisure activities; active life style; cognitive function; population-based cohort study the Nordic Prudent Dietary Pattern; leisure activities; active life style; cognitive function; population-based cohort study
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Shakersain, B.; Rizzuto, D.; Wang, H.-X.; Faxén-Irving, G.; Prinelli, F.; Fratiglioni, L.; Xu, W. An Active Lifestyle Reinforces the Effect of a Healthy Diet on Cognitive Function: A Population-Based Longitudinal Study. Nutrients 2018, 10, 1297.

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