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Nutrients 2018, 10(9), 1277; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10091277

Brain Fatty Acid Composition and Inflammation in Mice Fed with High-Carbohydrate Diet or High-Fat Diet

1
Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, State University of Maringá, Maringá 87020-900, Paraná, Brazil
2
Department of Chemistry, State University of Maringá, Maringá 87020-900, Paraná, Brazil
3
Department of Clinical Analysis, Federal University of Paraná, Curitiba 80210-170, Paraná, Brazil
4
Interdisciplinary Post-Graduate Program in Health Sciences, Cruzeiro do Sul University, São Paulo 03342-000, Brazil
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 11 August 2018 / Revised: 30 August 2018 / Accepted: 5 September 2018 / Published: 10 September 2018
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Abstract

Both high fat diet (HFD) and high carbohydrate diet (HCD) modulate brain fatty acids (FA) composition. Notwithstanding, there is a lack of information on time sequence of brain FA deposition either for HFD or HCD. The changes in brain FA composition in mice fed with HFD or HCD for 7, 14, 28, or 56 days were compared with results of 0 (before starting given the diets). mRNA expressions of allograft inflammatory factor 1 (Aif1), cyclooxygenase-2 (Cox 2), F4/80, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), integrin subunit alpha m (Itgam), interleukin IL-1β (IL-1β), IL-6, IL-10, and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) were measured. The HFD group had higher speed of deposition of saturated FA (SFA), monounsaturated FA (MUFA), and polyunsaturated FA (PUFA) at the beginning of the experimental period. However, on day 56, the total amount of SFA, MUFA, and PUFA were similar. mRNA expressions of F4/80 and Itgam, markers of microglia infiltration, were increased (p < 0.05) in the brain of the HCD group whereas inflammatory marker index (IMI) was higher (46%) in HFD group. In conclusion, the proportion of fat and carbohydrates in the diet modulates the speed deposition of FA and expression of inflammatory gene markers. View Full-Text
Keywords: saturated fatty acids; monounsaturated fatty acids; polyunsaturated fatty acids; n-6/n-3 fatty acid ratio; cytokines; nutrients saturated fatty acids; monounsaturated fatty acids; polyunsaturated fatty acids; n-6/n-3 fatty acid ratio; cytokines; nutrients
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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Gimenez da Silva-Santi, L.; Masetto Antunes, M.; Mori, M.A.; Biesdorf de Almeida-Souza, C.; Vergílio Visentainer, J.; Carbonera, F.; Rabello Crisma, A.; Nunes Masi, L.; Massao Hirabara, S.; Curi, R.; Barbosa Bazotte, R. Brain Fatty Acid Composition and Inflammation in Mice Fed with High-Carbohydrate Diet or High-Fat Diet. Nutrients 2018, 10, 1277.

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