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Nutrients 2018, 10(9), 1238; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10091238

A MALDI-TOF MS Approach for Mammalian, Human, and Formula Milks’ Profiling

1
Unit of Human Microbiome, Bambino Gesù Children’s Hospital, IRCCS, V.le San Paolo 15, 00146 Rome, Italy
2
Allergy Unit, Bambino Gesù Children’s Hospital, IRCCS, Piazza Sant’Onofrio 4, 00165 Rome, Italy
3
Gene Expression-Microarrays Laboratory, Bambino Gesù Children’s Hospital, IRCCS, V.le San Paolo 15, 00146 Rome, Italy
4
Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, Department of Medical and Surgical Neonatology, Bambino Gesù Children’s Hospital, IRCCS, Piazza Sant’Onofrio 4, 00165 Rome, Italy
5
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, San Camillo Forlanini Hospital, Circonvallazione Gianicolense 87, 00151 Rome, Italy
6
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Misericordia Hospital Grosseto, Usl Toscana Sud-est, 58036 Grosseto, Italy
7
Rehabilitation Hospital of High Specialization of Motta di Livenza, 31100 Treviso, Italy
8
Department of Laboratory Medicine, San Camillo Hospital, V.le Vittorio Veneto 18, 31100 Treviso, Italy
9
Metabolic Unit, Department of Pediatric Medicine, Bambino Gesù Children’s Hospital, IRCCS, V.le San Paolo 15, 00146 Rome, Italy
10
Tripoli Children Hospital, University of Tripoli, 13019 Tripoli, Libya
11
Department of Health Sciences, Università degli Studi “Magna Græcia” di Catanzaro, 88100 Catanzaro, Italy
12
Unit of Parasitology, Bambino Gesù Children’s Hospital, IRCCS, Piazza Sant’Onofrio 4, 00165 Rome, Italy
These authors are co-first authors on this work.
These authors share joint senior authorship.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 19 August 2018 / Revised: 30 August 2018 / Accepted: 31 August 2018 / Published: 5 September 2018
Full-Text   |   PDF [3736 KB, uploaded 5 September 2018]   |  

Abstract

Human milk composition is dynamic, and substitute formulae are intended to mimic its protein content. The purpose of this study was to investigate the potentiality of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS), followed by multivariate data analyses as a tool to analyze the peptide profiles of mammalian, human, and formula milks. Breast milk samples from women at different lactation stages (2 (n = 5), 30 (n = 6), 60 (n = 5), and 90 (n = 4) days postpartum), and milk from donkeys (n = 4), cows (n = 4), buffaloes (n = 7), goats (n = 4), ewes (n = 5), and camels (n = 2) were collected. Different brands (n = 4) of infant formulae were also analyzed. Protein content (<30 kDa) was analyzed by MS, and data were exported for statistical elaborations. The mass spectra for each milk closely clustered together, whereas different milk samples resulted in well-separated mass spectra. Human samples formed a cluster in which colostrum constituted a well-defined subcluster. None of the milk formulae correlated with animal or human milk, although they were specifically characterized and correlated well with each other. These findings propose MALDI-TOF MS milk profiling as an analytical tool to discriminate, in a blinded way, different milk types. As each formula has a distinct specificity, shifting a baby from one to another formula implies a specific proteomic exposure. These profiles may assist in milk proteomics for easiness of use and minimization of costs, suggesting that the MALDI-TOF MS pipelines may be useful for not only milk adulteration assessments but also for the characterization of banked milk specimens in pediatric clinical settings. View Full-Text
Keywords: infant nutrition; breast milk; mammalian milk; formula milk; protein similarity profiling; MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry infant nutrition; breast milk; mammalian milk; formula milk; protein similarity profiling; MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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Di Francesco, L.; Di Girolamo, F.; Mennini, M.; Masotti, A.; Salvatori, G.; Rigon, G.; Signore, F.; Pietrantoni, E.; Scapaticci, M.; Lante, I.; Goffredo, B.M.; Mazzina, O.; Elbousify, A.I.; Roncada, P.; Dotta, A.; Fiocchi, A.; Putignani, L. A MALDI-TOF MS Approach for Mammalian, Human, and Formula Milks’ Profiling. Nutrients 2018, 10, 1238.

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