Next Article in Journal / Special Issue
Human Milk Composition and Dietary Intakes of Breastfeeding Women of Different Ethnicity from the Manawatu-Wanganui Region of New Zealand
Previous Article in Journal
Maternal Administration of Probiotic or Prebiotic Prevents Male Adult Rat Offspring against Developmental Programming of Hypertension Induced by High Fructose Consumption in Pregnancy and Lactation
Previous Article in Special Issue
The Antisecretory Factor in Plasma and Breast Milk in Breastfeeding Mothers—A Prospective Cohort Study in Sweden
Article Menu
Issue 9 (September) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Nutrients 2018, 10(9), 1230; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10091230

Expression of Granulisyn, Perforin and Granzymes in Human Milk over Lactation and in the Case of Maternal Infection

1
Institute for Stem Cell Research, Helmholtz Center Munich, 85764 Munich, Germany
2
Faculty of Science and Medicine, University of Fribourg, 1700 Fribourg, Switzerland
3
School of Molecular Sciences, Faculty of Science, The University of Western Australia, Perth 6009, Australia
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 31 July 2018 / Revised: 28 August 2018 / Accepted: 31 August 2018 / Published: 4 September 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Breastfeeding and Human Lactation)
Full-Text   |   PDF [4613 KB, uploaded 4 September 2018]   |  

Abstract

Human milk has been previously found to contain various types of leukocytes however specific characteristics of these cells, such as whether they contain cytolytic antimicrobial proteins that may induce pathogen directed cell death, are unknown. This project aims to examine the presence and localization of immune proteins such as perforin, granulysin and granzymes in human milk cells at the protein and mRNA level. Genes encoding these proteins were confirmed in human milk cell samples, which were particularly enriched in early milk and in the case of maternal infection. Fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS) was used to investigate the co-expression of these proteins with pan-immune cell marker CD45 and epithelial marker EPCAM. Co-expression of antimicrobial proteins was found predominantly in CD45 positive cells, also increasing in the case of maternal infection. Our study suggests that human milk contains cells that carry hallmarks of activated or memory T-cells which are enriched early in lactation and in the case of maternal infection. Presence and prevalence of these cells in human milk may indicate a role in the protection of the maternal breast or for delivery to the vulnerable infant. View Full-Text
Keywords: human milk; milk cells; immune cells; antimicrobial proteins human milk; milk cells; immune cells; antimicrobial proteins
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Supplementary material

SciFeed

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Twigger, A.-J.; Küffer, G.K.; Geddes, D.T.; Filgueria, L. Expression of Granulisyn, Perforin and Granzymes in Human Milk over Lactation and in the Case of Maternal Infection. Nutrients 2018, 10, 1230.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Nutrients EISSN 2072-6643 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top