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Nutrients 2018, 10(9), 1212; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10091212

Dietary Supplement Use among U.S. Children by Family Income, Food Security Level, and Nutrition Assistance Program Participation Status in 2011–2014

1
Department of Nutrition Science, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907, USA
2
Department of Biostatistical Sciences, School of Medicine, Wake Forest University, Winston-Salem, NC 27157, USA
3
Office of Dietary Supplements, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892-7517, USA
4
Department of Statistics, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907, USA
5
Department of Nutrition and Integrative Physiology, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT 84112, USA
6
National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Rockville, MD 20850, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 8 August 2018 / Revised: 27 August 2018 / Accepted: 30 August 2018 / Published: 1 September 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Dietary Supplements)
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Abstract

This analysis characterizes use of dietary supplements (DS) and motivations for DS use among U.S. children (≤18 years) by family income level, food security status, and federal nutrition assistance program participation using the 2011–2014 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data. About one-third (32%) of children used DS, mostly multivitamin-minerals (MVM; 24%). DS and MVM use were associated with higher family income and higher household food security level. DS use was lowest among children in households participating in the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP; 20%) and those participating in the Special Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC; 26%) compared to both income-eligible and income-ineligible nonparticipants. Most children who used DS took only one (83%) or two (12%) products; although children in low-income families took fewer products than those in higher income families. The most common motivations for DS and MVM use were to “improve (42% or 46%)” or “maintain (34 or 38%)” health, followed by “to supplement the diet (23 or 24%)” for DS or MVM, respectively. High-income children were more likely to use DS and MVM “to supplement the diet” than middle- or low-income children. Only 18% of child DS users took DS based on a health practitioner’s recommendation. In conclusion, DS use was lower among children who were in low-income or food-insecure families, or families participating in nutrition assistance programs. View Full-Text
Keywords: dietary supplements; infant; child; adolescent; income; food security; SNAP; WIC dietary supplements; infant; child; adolescent; income; food security; SNAP; WIC
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Jun, S.; Cowan, A.E.; Tooze, J.A.; Gahche, J.J.; Dwyer, J.T.; Eicher-Miller, H.A.; Bhadra, A.; Guenther, P.M.; Potischman, N.; Dodd, K.W.; Bailey, R.L. Dietary Supplement Use among U.S. Children by Family Income, Food Security Level, and Nutrition Assistance Program Participation Status in 2011–2014. Nutrients 2018, 10, 1212.

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