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Nutrients 2018, 10(8), 1123; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10081123

Autoantibodies in the Extraintestinal Manifestations of Celiac Disease

1
Department of Medicine, Columbia University Medical Center, 1130 Saint Nicholas Ave., New York, NY 10032, USA
2
Celiac Disease Center, Columbia University, New York, NY 10032, USA
3
Institute of Human Nutrition, Columbia University, New York, NY 10032, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 1 August 2018 / Revised: 15 August 2018 / Accepted: 17 August 2018 / Published: 20 August 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Extraintestinal Manifestations of Coeliac Disease)
Full-Text   |   PDF [284 KB, uploaded 20 August 2018]

Abstract

Increased antibody reactivity towards self-antigens is often indicative of a disruption of homeostatic immune pathways in the body. In celiac disease, an autoimmune enteropathy triggered by the ingestion of gluten from wheat and related cereals in genetically predisposed individuals, autoantibody reactivity to transglutaminase 2 is reflective of the pathogenic role of the enzyme in driving the associated inflammatory immune response. Autoantibody reactivity to transglutaminase 2 closely corresponds with the gluten intake and clinical presentation in affected patients, serving as a highly useful biomarker in the diagnosis of celiac disease. In addition to gastrointestinal symptoms, celiac disease is associated with a number of extraintestinal manifestations, including those affecting skin, bones, and the nervous system. Investigations of these manifestations in celiac disease have identified a number of associated immune abnormalities, including B cell reactivity towards various autoantigens, such as transglutaminase 3, transglutaminase 6, synapsin I, gangliosides, and collagen. Clinical relevance, pathogenic potential, mechanism of development, and diagnostic and prognostic value of the various identified autoantibody reactivities continue to be subjects of investigation and will be reviewed here. View Full-Text
Keywords: celiac disease; gluten; gliadin; autoantibody; B cell; T cell; transglutaminase; synapsin; ganglioside; gluten sensitivity; gastrointestinal symptoms; molecular mimicry; intermolecular help; biomarker celiac disease; gluten; gliadin; autoantibody; B cell; T cell; transglutaminase; synapsin; ganglioside; gluten sensitivity; gastrointestinal symptoms; molecular mimicry; intermolecular help; biomarker
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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Yu, X.B.; Uhde, M.; Green, P.H.; Alaedini, A. Autoantibodies in the Extraintestinal Manifestations of Celiac Disease. Nutrients 2018, 10, 1123.

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