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Nutrients 2018, 10(8), 1075; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10081075

Influence of Physical Activity on Bone Mineral Content and Density in Overweight and Obese Children with Low Adherence to the Mediterranean Dietary Pattern

1
PROmoting FITness and Health through physical activity research group (PROFITH), Department of Physical Education and Sports, Faculty of Sport Sciences, University of Granada, 18071 Granada, Spain
2
Nutrition, Exercise and Health Research group, Elikadura, Ariketa Fisikoa eta Osasuna, ELIKOS group, Institute for Innovation & Sustainable Development in Food Chain (IS-FOOD), 18 Public University of Navarra, Campus de Arrosadía, 31006 Pamplona, Spain
3
Growth, Exercise, Nutrition and Development (GENUD) Research Group, Universidad de Zaragoza, 50009 Zaragoza, Spain
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 18 July 2018 / Revised: 9 August 2018 / Accepted: 10 August 2018 / Published: 12 August 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Balancing Physical Activity and Nutrition for Human Health)
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Abstract

The objective of the present cross-sectional study was to examine the associations of physical activity and the adherence to the Mediterranean dietary pattern (MDP) with bone mineral content (BMC) and density (BMD) in children with overweight and obesity. A total of 177 (n = 80 girls) children with overweight and obesity aged 8 to 12 years old participated in the study. Both BMC and BMD were assessed by Dual-Energy X-ray absorptiometry. Dietary patterns were assessed by the KIDMED questionnaire and two 24-hour recalls. Physical activity was assessed by accelerometers for 7 consecutive days (24 hours/day). Low adherence to the MDP was observed in 82.4% of participants. Higher physical activity levels (of at least moderate intensity) and lower sedentary time were significantly associated with BMC and BMD in children with low adherence to the MDP (all p < 0.05). No associations were observed between physical activity and BMC and BMD in children with high adherence to the MDP. In conclusion, engaging in moderate to vigorous physical activity and reducing the time spent in sedentary behavior might be particularly beneficial for improving bone health in overweight or obese children with poor adherence to the Mediterranean dietary pattern. View Full-Text
Keywords: Mediterranean dietary pattern; overweight children; bone health; physical activity Mediterranean dietary pattern; overweight children; bone health; physical activity
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Muñoz-Hernandez, V.; Arenaza, L.; Gracia-Marco, L.; Medrano, M.; Merchan Ramirez, E.; D. Martinez Avila, W.; Oses, M.; R. Ruiz, J.; B. Ortega, F.; Labayen, I. Influence of Physical Activity on Bone Mineral Content and Density in Overweight and Obese Children with Low Adherence to the Mediterranean Dietary Pattern. Nutrients 2018, 10, 1075.

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