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Nutrients 2018, 10(8), 1070; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10081070

Effects of Adherence to a Higher Protein Diet on Weight Loss, Markers of Health, and Functional Capacity in Older Women Participating in a Resistance-Based Exercise Program

1
Matrix Medical Net, New York, NY 10011, USA
2
Exercise Science Program, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL 33620, USA
3
Exercise and Sports Science Department, University of Mary Hardin-Baylor, Belton, TX 76513, USA
4
Department of Physical Therapy, Campbell University, Buies Creek, NC 27506, USA
5
Department of Health, Human Performance and Recreation, Baylor University, Waco, TX 76798, USA
6
United States Special Operations Command, Preservation of the Force and Family, Human Performance, MacDill AFB, Tampa, FL 33621, USA
7
Department of Health, Kinesiology, & Sport, The University of South Alabama, Mobile, AL 36688, USA
8
Department of Nutrition & Metabolism, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 77555, USA
9
Department of Exercise and Nutrition Sciences, George Washington University, Washington, DC 20037, USA
10
Division of Rehabilitation Sciences, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 77555, USA
11
School of Health Sciences, Lindenwood University, Saint Charles, MO 63301, USA
12
Exercise & Sport Nutrition Lab, Human Clinical Research Facility, Department of Health and Kinesiology, Texas A & M University, College Station, TX 77843, USA
13
Faculty of Health, Arts and Design, Swinburne University of Technology, Melbourne, VIC 3000, Australia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 5 July 2018 / Revised: 8 August 2018 / Accepted: 9 August 2018 / Published: 11 August 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diet and Weight Loss)
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Abstract

Resistance training and maintenance of a higher protein diet have been recommended to help older individuals maintain muscle mass. This study examined whether adherence to a higher protein diet while participating in a resistance-based exercise program promoted more favorable changes in body composition, markers of health, and/or functional capacity in older females in comparison to following a traditional higher carbohydrate diet or exercise training alone with no diet intervention. In total, 54 overweight and obese females (65.9 ± 4.7 years; 78.7 ± 11 kg, 30.5 ± 4.1 kg/m2, 43.5 ± 3.6% fat) were randomly assigned to an exercise-only group (E), an exercise plus hypo-energetic higher carbohydrate (HC) diet, or a higher protein diet (HP) diet. Participants followed their respective diet plans and performed a supervised 30-min circuit-style resistance exercise program 3 d/wk. Participants were tested at 0, 10, and 14 weeks. Data were analyzed using univariate, multivariate, and repeated measures general linear model (GLM) statistics as well as one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) of changes from baseline with [95% confidence intervals]. Results revealed that after 14 weeks, participants in the HP group experienced significantly greater reductions in weight (E −1.3 ± 2.3, [−2.4, −0.2]; HC −3.0 ± 3.1 [−4.5, −1.5]; HP −4.8 ± 3.2, [−6.4, −3.1]%, p = 0.003), fat mass (E −2.7 ± 3.8, [−4.6, −0.9]; HC −5.9 ± 4.2 [−8.0, −3.9]; HP −10.2 ± 5.8 [−13.2, –7.2%], p < 0.001), and body fat percentage (E −2.0 ± 3.5 [−3.7, −0.3]; HC −4.3 ± 3.2 [−5.9, −2.8]; HP −6.3 ± 3.5 [−8.1, −4.5] %, p = 0.002) with no significant reductions in fat-free mass or resting energy expenditure over time or among groups. Significant differences were observed in leptin (E −1.8 ± 34 [−18, 14]; HC 43.8 ± 55 [CI 16, 71]; HP −26.5 ± 70 [−63, −9.6] ng/mL, p = 0.001) and adiponectin (E 43.1 ± 76.2 [6.3, 79.8]; HC −27.9 ± 33.4 [−44.5, −11.3]; HP 52.3 ± 79 [11.9, 92.8] µg/mL, p = 0.001). All groups experienced significant improvements in muscular strength, muscular endurance, aerobic capacity, markers of balance and functional capacity, and several markers of health. These findings indicate that a higher protein diet while participating in a resistance-based exercise program promoted more favorable changes in body composition compared to a higher carbohydrate diet in older females. View Full-Text
Keywords: diet; exercise; sarcopenia; functional capacity; elderly diet; exercise; sarcopenia; functional capacity; elderly
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Galbreath, M.; Campbell, B.; LaBounty, P.; Bunn, J.; Dove, J.; Harvey, T.; Hudson, G.; Gutierrez, J.L.; Levers, K.; Galvan, E.; Jagim, A.; Greenwood, L.; Cooke, M.B.; Greenwood, M.; Rasmussen, C.; Kreider, R.B. Effects of Adherence to a Higher Protein Diet on Weight Loss, Markers of Health, and Functional Capacity in Older Women Participating in a Resistance-Based Exercise Program. Nutrients 2018, 10, 1070.

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