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Nutrients 2018, 10(8), 1043; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10081043

Pectolinarigenin Induced Cell Cycle Arrest, Autophagy, and Apoptosis in Gastric Cancer Cell via PI3K/AKT/mTOR Signaling Pathway

1
Research Institute of Life science and College of Veterinary Medicine, Gyeongsang National University, 501 Jinju-daero, Jinju 52828, Korea
2
Gyeongnam Department of Environment Toxicology and Chemistry, Biological Resources Research Group, Korea Institute of Toxicology, 17 Jegok-gil, Jinju 52834, Korea
3
Department of Internal Medicine, Gyeongsang National University Cancer Center, School of Medicine, Gyeongsang National University, 15 Jinju-daero, Jinju 52727, Korea
4
Department of Nursing Science, International University of Korea, 965 Dongbu-ro, Jinju 52833, Korea
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 29 June 2018 / Revised: 1 August 2018 / Accepted: 6 August 2018 / Published: 8 August 2018
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Abstract

Pectolinarigenin (PEC), a natural flavonoid present in Cirsium chanroenicum and in some species of Citrus fruits, has various pharmacological benefits such as anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer activities. In the present study, we investigated the anti-cancer mechanism of PEC induced cell death caused by autophagy and apoptosis in AGS and MKN28 human gastric cancer cells. The PEC treatment significantly inhibited the AGS and MKN28 cell growth in a dose-dependent manner. Further, PEC significantly elevated sub-G1 phase in AGS cells and G2/M phase cell cycle arrest in both AGS and MKN28 cells. Apoptosis was confirmed by Annexin V and Hoechst 33342 fluorescent staining. Moreover, Immunoblotting results revealed that PEC treatment down-regulated the inhibitor of apoptosis protein (IAP) family protein XIAP that leads to the activation of caspase-3 thereby cleavage of PARP (poly-ADP-ribose polymerase) in both AGS and MKN28 cells in a dose-dependent manner. The autophagy-inducing effect was indicated by the increased formation of acidic vesicular organelles (AVOs) and increased protein levels of LC3-II conversion in both AGS and MKN28 cells. PEC shows the down regulation of PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway which is a major regulator of autophagic and apoptotic cell death in cancer cells that leads to the down-regulation of p-4EBP1, p-p70S6K, and p-eIF4E in PEC treated cells when compared with the untreated cells. In conclusion, PEC treatment might have anti-cancer effect by down-regulation of PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway leading to G2/M phase cell cycle arrest, autophagic and apoptotic cell death in human gastric cancer cells. Further studies of PEC treatment can support to develop as a potential alternative therapeutic agent for human gastric carcinoma. View Full-Text
Keywords: pectolinarigenin; gastric cancer; apoptosis; autophagy; PI3K/AKT/mTOR pectolinarigenin; gastric cancer; apoptosis; autophagy; PI3K/AKT/mTOR
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Lee, H.J.; Venkatarame Gowda Saralamma, V.; Kim, S.M.; Ha, S.E.; Raha, S.; Lee, W.S.; Kim, E.H.; Lee, S.J.; Heo, J.D.; Kim, G.S. Pectolinarigenin Induced Cell Cycle Arrest, Autophagy, and Apoptosis in Gastric Cancer Cell via PI3K/AKT/mTOR Signaling Pathway. Nutrients 2018, 10, 1043.

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