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Nutrients 2018, 10(3), 370; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10030370

Effects of Low Versus Moderate Glycemic Index Diets on Aerobic Capacity in Endurance Runners: Three-Week Randomized Controlled Crossover Trial

1
Institute of Human Nutrition and Dietetics, Poznan University of Life Sciences, 60-624 Poznań, Poland
2
Department of Mathematical and Statistical Methods, Poznań University of Life Sciences, 60-637 Poznań, Poland
3
Energy Balance Laboratory, Department of Medicine, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN 37232, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 22 January 2018 / Revised: 22 February 2018 / Accepted: 12 March 2018 / Published: 17 March 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Sport and Performance Nutrition)
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Abstract

The glycemic index (GI) of ingested carbohydrates may influence substrate oxidation during exercise and athletic performance. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the effect of low- and moderate-GI three-week diets on aerobic capacity and endurance performance in runners. We conducted a randomized crossover feeding study of matched diets differing only in GI (low vs. moderate) in 21 endurance-trained runners. Each participant consumed both, low- (LGI) and moderate-GI (MGI) high-carbohydrate (~60%) and nutrient-balanced diets for three weeks each. At the beginning and end of each diet, participants had their aerobic capacity and body composition measured and performed a 12-min running test. After LGI, time to exhaustion during incremental cycling test (ICT) and distance covered in the 12-min run were significantly increased. The MGI diet led to an increase in maximal oxygen uptake ( V ˙ O2max), but no performance benefits were found after the MGI diet. The LGI and MGI diets improved time and workload at gas exchange threshold (GET) during ICT. The results indicate that a three-week high-carbohydrate LGI diet resulted in a small but significant improvement in athletic performance in endurance runners. Observed increase in V ˙ O2max on MGI diet did not affect performance. View Full-Text
Keywords: glycemic index; nutrition; aerobic capacity; endurance; running performance; body composition glycemic index; nutrition; aerobic capacity; endurance; running performance; body composition
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Durkalec-Michalski, K.; Zawieja, E.E.; Zawieja, B.E.; Jurkowska, D.; Buchowski, M.S.; Jeszka, J. Effects of Low Versus Moderate Glycemic Index Diets on Aerobic Capacity in Endurance Runners: Three-Week Randomized Controlled Crossover Trial. Nutrients 2018, 10, 370.

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