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Remote Sens. 2017, 9(1), 36; doi:10.3390/rs9010036

Compilation and Validation of SAR and Optical Data Products for a Complete and Global Map of Inland/Ocean Water Tailored to the Climate Modeling Community

1
Earth and Life Institute—Environment, Université catholique de Louvain, Croix du Sud 2, 1348 Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium
2
GAMMA Remote Sensing AG, 3073 Gümligen, Switzerland
3
Luxembourg Institute of Science and Technology, 5 Avenue des Hauts-Fourneaux, L-4362 Esch/Alzette, Luxembourg
4
Brockmann-Consult GmbH, Max-Planck Str. 2, 21502 Geesthacht, Germany
5
European Space Agency, 00044 Frascati, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Linda See, Deepak R. Mishra, Xiaofeng Li and Prasad S. Thenkabail
Received: 6 May 2016 / Revised: 27 December 2016 / Accepted: 28 December 2016 / Published: 11 January 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Validation and Inter-Comparison of Land Cover and Land Use Data)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [6195 KB, uploaded 13 January 2017]   |  

Abstract

Accurate maps of surface water extent are of paramount importance for water management, satellite data processing and climate modeling. Several maps of water bodies based on remote sensing data have been released during the last decade. Nonetheless, none has a truly (90 N/90 S) global coverage while being thoroughly validated. This paper describes a global, spatially-complete (void-free) and accurate mask of inland/ocean water for the 2000–2012 period, built in the framework of the European Space Agency (ESA) Climate Change Initiative (CCI). This map results from the synergistic combination of multiple individual SAR and optical water body and auxiliary datasets. A key aspect of this work is the original and rigorous stratified random sampling designed for the quality assessment of binary classifications where one class is marginally distributed. Input and consolidated products were assessed qualitatively and quantitatively against a reference validation database of 2110 samples spread throughout the globe. Using all samples, overall accuracy was always very high among all products, between 98 % and 100 % . The CCI global map of open water bodies provided the best water class representation (F-score of 89 % ) compared to its constitutive inputs. When focusing on the challenging areas for water bodies’ mapping, such as shorelines, lakes and river banks, all products yielded substantially lower accuracy figures with overall accuracies ranging between 74 % and 89 % . The inland water area of the CCI global map of open water bodies was estimated to be 3.17 million km 2 ± 0.24 million km 2 . The dataset is freely available through the ESA CCI Land Cover viewer. View Full-Text
Keywords: water; global; complete; compilation; accuracy; validation; stratified random sampling; marginal class; Climate Change Initiative; climate modeling community water; global; complete; compilation; accuracy; validation; stratified random sampling; marginal class; Climate Change Initiative; climate modeling community
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Lamarche, C.; Santoro, M.; Bontemps, S.; d’Andrimont, R.; Radoux, J.; Giustarini, L.; Brockmann, C.; Wevers, J.; Defourny, P.; Arino, O. Compilation and Validation of SAR and Optical Data Products for a Complete and Global Map of Inland/Ocean Water Tailored to the Climate Modeling Community. Remote Sens. 2017, 9, 36.

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