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Remote Sens. 2016, 8(9), 739; doi:10.3390/rs8090739

Global Surface Net-Radiation at 5 km from MODIS Terra

1
Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Dr., Pasadena, CA 91109, USA
2
Department of Environmental Research and Innovation (ERIN), Luxembourg Institute of Science and Technology (LIST), Belvaux L-4422, Luxembourg
3
Department of Landscape Architecture and Rural Systems Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-921, Korea
4
Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology, Yokohama 236-0001, Japan
5
Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA
6
Department of Environmental Systems Science, ETH Zurich, Zurich 8092, Switzerland
7
Environmental Research Institute, Civil and Environmental Engineering Department, University College, Cork T12P2FY, Ireland
8
Institute of Ecology, University of Innsbruck, Sternwartestr. 15, Innsbruck 6020, Austria
9
Research Group of Plant and Vegetation Ecology, Department of Biology, University of Antwerp, Antwerp 2610, Belgium
10
CIRAD, UMR Eco & Sols (Ecologie Fonctionnelle & Biogéochimie des Sols & Agroécosystèmes), Montpellier 34000, France
11
CATIE (Tropical Agricultural Centre for Research and Higher Education), Turrialba 93-7170, Costa Rica
12
Institute of Biometeorology (IBIMET—CNR), via G.Caproni 8, Firenze 50145, Italy
13
School of Geography and Earth Sciences, McMaster Centre for Climate Change, McMaster University, 1280 Main Street West, Hamilton, ON L8S 4K1, Canada
14
European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Directorate for Sustainable Resources, Ispra 21027, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Dongdong Wang, Richard Müller and Prasad S. Thenkabail
Received: 20 April 2016 / Revised: 17 August 2016 / Accepted: 23 August 2016 / Published: 6 September 2016
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Abstract

Reliable and fine resolution estimates of surface net-radiation are required for estimating latent and sensible heat fluxes between the land surface and the atmosphere. However, currently, fine resolution estimates of net-radiation are not available and consequently it is challenging to develop multi-year estimates of evapotranspiration at scales that can capture land surface heterogeneity and are relevant for policy and decision-making. We developed and evaluated a global net-radiation product at 5 km and 8-day resolution by combining mutually consistent atmosphere and land data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on board Terra. Comparison with net-radiation measurements from 154 globally distributed sites (414 site-years) from the FLUXNET and Surface Radiation budget network (SURFRAD) showed that the net-radiation product agreed well with measurements across seasons and climate types in the extratropics (Wilmott’s index ranged from 0.74 for boreal to 0.63 for Mediterranean sites). Mean absolute deviation between the MODIS and measured net-radiation ranged from 38.0 ± 1.8 W∙m−2 in boreal to 72.0 ± 4.1 W∙m−2 in the tropical climates. The mean bias was small and constituted only 11%, 0.7%, 8.4%, 4.2%, 13.3%, and 5.4% of the mean absolute error in daytime net-radiation in boreal, Mediterranean, temperate-continental, temperate, semi-arid, and tropical climate, respectively. To assess the accuracy of the broader spatiotemporal patterns, we upscaled error-quantified MODIS net-radiation and compared it with the net-radiation estimates from the coarse spatial (1° × 1°) but high temporal resolution gridded net-radiation product from the Clouds and Earth’s Radiant Energy System (CERES). Our estimates agreed closely with the net-radiation estimates from the CERES. Difference between the two was less than 10 W·m−2 in 94% of the total land area. MODIS net-radiation product will be a valuable resource for the science community studying turbulent fluxes and energy budget at the Earth’s surface. View Full-Text
Keywords: surface net-radiation; MODIS; FLUXNET; SURFRAD; modeling; validation surface net-radiation; MODIS; FLUXNET; SURFRAD; modeling; validation
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Verma, M.; Fisher, J.B.; Mallick, K.; Ryu, Y.; Kobayashi, H.; Guillaume, A.; Moore, G.; Ramakrishnan, L.; Hendrix, V.; Wolf, S.; Sikka, M.; Kiely, G.; Wohlfahrt, G.; Gielen, B.; Roupsard, O.; Toscano, P.; Arain, A.; Cescatti, A. Global Surface Net-Radiation at 5 km from MODIS Terra. Remote Sens. 2016, 8, 739.

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