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Remote Sens. 2016, 8(9), 722; doi:10.3390/rs8090722

MOD2SEA: A Coupled Atmosphere-Hydro-Optical Model for the Retrieval of Chlorophyll-a from Remote Sensing Observations in Complex Turbid Waters

1
Faculty of Geo-Information Science and Earth Observation (ITC), Department of Water Resources, University of Twente, P.O. Box 217, 7500AE Enschede, The Netherlands
2
Department of Coastal Systems, Marine Optics and Remote Sensing, Royal Netherlands Institute for Sea Research (NIOZ), P.O. Box 59, 1790AB Den Burg, Texel, The Netherlands
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Magaly Koch and Prasad S. Thenkabail
Received: 20 June 2016 / Revised: 11 August 2016 / Accepted: 27 August 2016 / Published: 1 September 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Optics and Water Colour Remote Sensing)
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Abstract

An accurate estimation of the chlorophyll-a (Chla) concentration is crucial for water quality monitoring and is highly desired by various government agencies and environmental groups. However, using satellite observations for Chla estimation remains problematic over coastal waters due to their optical complexity and the critical atmospheric correction. In this study, we coupled an atmospheric and a water optical model for the simultaneous atmospheric correction and retrieval of Chla in the complex waters of the Wadden Sea. This coupled model called MOD2SEA combines simulations from the MODerate resolution atmospheric TRANsmission model (MODTRAN) and the two-stream radiative transfer hydro-optical model 2SeaColor. The accuracy of the coupled MOD2SEA model was validated using a matchup data set of MERIS (MEdium Resolution Imaging SpectRometer) observations and four years of concurrent ground truth measurements (2007–2010) at the NIOZ jetty location in the Dutch part of the Wadden Sea. The results showed that MERIS-derived Chla from MOD2SEA explained the variations of measured Chla with a determination coefficient of R2 = 0.88 and a RMSE of 3.32 mg·m−3, which means a significant improvement in comparison with the standard MERIS Case 2 regional (C2R) processor. The proposed coupled model might be used to generate a time series of reliable Chla maps, which is of profound importance for the assessment of causes and consequences of long-term phenological changes of Chla in the turbid Wadden Sea area. View Full-Text
Keywords: Chlorophyll-a; remote sensing; MERIS; atmospheric correction; MODTRAN; 2Seacolor; C2R; Wadden Sea Chlorophyll-a; remote sensing; MERIS; atmospheric correction; MODTRAN; 2Seacolor; C2R; Wadden Sea
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Arabi, B.; Salama, M.S.; Wernand, M.R.; Verhoef, W. MOD2SEA: A Coupled Atmosphere-Hydro-Optical Model for the Retrieval of Chlorophyll-a from Remote Sensing Observations in Complex Turbid Waters. Remote Sens. 2016, 8, 722.

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