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Remote Sens. 2016, 8(5), 420; doi:10.3390/rs8050420

Diatom Phenology in the Southern Ocean: Mean Patterns, Trends and the Role of Climate Oscillations

1
Alfred Wegener Institute, Bussestraße 24, D-27570 Bremerhaven, Germany
2
Alfred Wegener Institute, Am Handelshafen 12, D-27570 Bremerhaven, Germany
3
Institute of Environmental Physics, University of Bremen, D-28334 Bremen, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Xiaofeng Li, Raphael M. Kudela and Prasad S. Thenkabail
Received: 8 March 2016 / Revised: 13 April 2016 / Accepted: 5 May 2016 / Published: 16 May 2016
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [3186 KB, uploaded 16 May 2016]   |  

Abstract

Diatoms are the major marine primary producers in the Southern Ocean and a key component of the carbon and silicate biogeochemical cycle. Using 15 years of satellite-derived diatom concentration from September to April (1997–2012), we examine the mean patterns and the interannual variability of the diatom bloom phenology in the Southern Ocean. Mean spatial patterns of timing and duration of diatom blooms are generally associated with the position of the Southern Antarctic Circumpolar Current Front and of the maximum sea ice extent. In several areas the anomalies of phenological indices are found to be correlated with ENSO and SAM. Composite maps of the anomalies reveal distinct spatial patterns and opposite events of ENSO and SAM have similar effects on the diatom phenology. For example, in the Ross Sea region, a later start of the bloom and lower diatom biomass were observed associated with El Niño and negative SAM events; likely influenced by an increase in sea ice concentration during these events. View Full-Text
Keywords: diatom; phenology; phytoplankton; SAM; ENSO; ocean colour; Southern Ocean diatom; phenology; phytoplankton; SAM; ENSO; ocean colour; Southern Ocean
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Soppa, M.A.; Völker, C.; Bracher, A. Diatom Phenology in the Southern Ocean: Mean Patterns, Trends and the Role of Climate Oscillations. Remote Sens. 2016, 8, 420.

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