The Modified SEBAL for Mapping Daily Spatial Evapotranspiration of South Korea Using Three Flux Towers and Terra MODIS Data
AbstractEvapotranspiration (ET) is expected to increase by a considerable amount because of the impact of future temperature increase. Nowadays, the daily to seasonal ET maps can be used to provide information for a sustainable and adaptive watershed eco-environment. This study attempts to estimate the spatial ET of South Korea (99,900 km2), located within the latitudes of 33°06′N to 43°01′N and the longitudes of 124°04′E to 131°05′E, on a daily basis. The satellite-based image-processing model Surface Energy Balance Algorithms for Land (SEBAL) was adopted and modified to generate the spatial ET data. The SEBAL was calibrated using two years (2012–2013) of measured ETs by an eddy covariance (EC) flux tower at three locations (two in a mixed forest area and one in a rice paddy area). The primary inputs for the model were land surface temperature/emissivity (LST/E), the Normalized Distribution Vegetation Index (NDVI), albedo (Ab) from a Terra Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) satellite, a digital elevation model, and wind speed and solar radiation (Rs) from 76 ground-based weather stations. When LST data were unavailable because of clouds and/or snow, the bias-corrected ground temperature measured at the weather stations was used. The NDVI and Ab were used as the monthly average value to maintain relatively stable values rather than using the original time interval data. The determination coefficient (R2) between SEBAL and the flux tower ET was 0.45–0.54 for the two mixed forest towers and 0.79 for the rice paddy tower reflecting the known characteristics of closed and open space ET estimation. The spatial distribution of SEBAL showed that the spatial ET reflected the geographical characteristics, revealing that the ET of lowland areas was higher than that of highland areas. View Full-Text
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Lee, Y.; Kim, S. The Modified SEBAL for Mapping Daily Spatial Evapotranspiration of South Korea Using Three Flux Towers and Terra MODIS Data. Remote Sens. 2016, 8, 983.
Lee Y, Kim S. The Modified SEBAL for Mapping Daily Spatial Evapotranspiration of South Korea Using Three Flux Towers and Terra MODIS Data. Remote Sensing. 2016; 8(12):983.Chicago/Turabian Style
Lee, Yonggwan; Kim, Seongjoon. 2016. "The Modified SEBAL for Mapping Daily Spatial Evapotranspiration of South Korea Using Three Flux Towers and Terra MODIS Data." Remote Sens. 8, no. 12: 983.
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