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Remote Sens. 2016, 8(12), 983; doi:10.3390/rs8120983

The Modified SEBAL for Mapping Daily Spatial Evapotranspiration of South Korea Using Three Flux Towers and Terra MODIS Data

Department of Civil and Environmental System Engineering, Konkuk University, 120 Neungdong-ro, Gwangjin-gu, Seoul 05029, Korea
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Academic Editors: Gabriel Senay, Richard Müller and Prasad S. Thenkabail
Received: 15 June 2016 / Revised: 8 November 2016 / Accepted: 23 November 2016 / Published: 29 November 2016
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Abstract

Evapotranspiration (ET) is expected to increase by a considerable amount because of the impact of future temperature increase. Nowadays, the daily to seasonal ET maps can be used to provide information for a sustainable and adaptive watershed eco-environment. This study attempts to estimate the spatial ET of South Korea (99,900 km2), located within the latitudes of 33°06′N to 43°01′N and the longitudes of 124°04′E to 131°05′E, on a daily basis. The satellite-based image-processing model Surface Energy Balance Algorithms for Land (SEBAL) was adopted and modified to generate the spatial ET data. The SEBAL was calibrated using two years (2012–2013) of measured ETs by an eddy covariance (EC) flux tower at three locations (two in a mixed forest area and one in a rice paddy area). The primary inputs for the model were land surface temperature/emissivity (LST/E), the Normalized Distribution Vegetation Index (NDVI), albedo (Ab) from a Terra Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) satellite, a digital elevation model, and wind speed and solar radiation (Rs) from 76 ground-based weather stations. When LST data were unavailable because of clouds and/or snow, the bias-corrected ground temperature measured at the weather stations was used. The NDVI and Ab were used as the monthly average value to maintain relatively stable values rather than using the original time interval data. The determination coefficient (R2) between SEBAL and the flux tower ET was 0.45–0.54 for the two mixed forest towers and 0.79 for the rice paddy tower reflecting the known characteristics of closed and open space ET estimation. The spatial distribution of SEBAL showed that the spatial ET reflected the geographical characteristics, revealing that the ET of lowland areas was higher than that of highland areas. View Full-Text
Keywords: evapotranspiration; flux tower; remote sensing; SEBAL; Terra MODIS evapotranspiration; flux tower; remote sensing; SEBAL; Terra MODIS
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Lee, Y.; Kim, S. The Modified SEBAL for Mapping Daily Spatial Evapotranspiration of South Korea Using Three Flux Towers and Terra MODIS Data. Remote Sens. 2016, 8, 983.

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