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Remote Sens. 2016, 8(10), 875; doi:10.3390/rs8100875

Satellite Survey of Inner Seas: Oil Pollution in the Black and Caspian Seas

Space Research Institute of Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow 117997, Russia
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Elijah Ramsey III, Ira Leifer, Bill Lehr, Xiaofeng Li and Prasad S. Thenkabail
Received: 5 June 2016 / Revised: 4 October 2016 / Accepted: 17 October 2016 / Published: 23 October 2016
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Abstract

The paper discusses our studies of oil pollution in the Black and Caspian Seas. The research was based on a multi-sensor approach on satellite survey data. A combined analysis of oil film signatures in satellite synthetic aperture radar (SAR) and optical imagery was performed. Maps of oil spills detected in satellite imagery of the whole aquatic area of the Black Sea and the Middle and the Southern Caspian Sea are created. Areas of the heaviest pollution are outlined. It is shown that the main types of sea surface oil pollution are ship discharges and natural marine hydrocarbon seepages. For each type of pollution and each sea, regions of regular pollution occurrence were determined, polluted areas were estimated, and specific manifestation features were revealed. Long-term observations demonstrate that in recent years, illegal wastewater discharges into the Black Sea have become very common, which raises serious environmental issues. Manifestations of seabed hydrocarbon seepages were also detected in the Black Sea, primarily in its eastern part. The patterns of surface oil pollution of the Caspian Sea differ considerably from those observed in the Black Sea. They are largely determined by presence of big seabed oil and gas deposits. The dependence of surface oil SAR signatures on wind/wave conditions is discussed. The impact of dynamic and circulation processes on oil films drift and spread is investigated. A large amount of the data available allowed us to make some generalizations and obtain statistically significant results on spatial and temporal variability of various surface film manifestations.The examples and numerical data we provide on ship spills and seabed seepages reflect the influence of the pollution on the sea environment. View Full-Text
Keywords: Caspian Sea; Black Sea; satellite monitoring; sea surface; SAR imagery; oil pollution; surface films; natural hydrocarbon seepages Caspian Sea; Black Sea; satellite monitoring; sea surface; SAR imagery; oil pollution; surface films; natural hydrocarbon seepages
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Mityagina, M.; Lavrova, O. Satellite Survey of Inner Seas: Oil Pollution in the Black and Caspian Seas. Remote Sens. 2016, 8, 875.

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