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Remote Sens. 2015, 7(9), 12057-12075; doi:10.3390/rs70912057

Evaluation of Medium Spatial Resolution BRDF-Adjustment Techniques Using Multi-Angular SPOT4 (Take5) Acquisitions

1
Department of Geographical Sciences, University of Maryland, College Park MD 20742, USA
2
NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, 8800 Greenbelt Road, Greenbelt, MD 20771, USA
3
CESBIO, Unité mixte CNES-CNRS-IRD-UPS, 18 Avenue Edouard Belin, Toulouse Cedex 4 31401, France
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Benjamin Koetz, Richard Müller and Prasad S. Thenkabail
Received: 1 June 2015 / Revised: 9 September 2015 / Accepted: 14 September 2015 / Published: 18 September 2015
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Abstract

High-resolution sensor Surface Reflectance (SR) data are affected by surface anisotropy but are difficult to adjust because of the low temporal frequency of the acquisitions and the low angular sampling. This paper evaluates five high spatial resolution Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function (BRDF) adjustment techniques. The evaluation is based on the noise level of the SR Time Series (TS) corrected to a normalized geometry (nadir view, 45° sun zenith angle) extracted from the multi-angular acquisitions of SPOT4 over three study areas (one in Arizona, two in France) during the five-month SPOT4 (Take5) experiment. Two uniform techniques (Cst, for Constant, and Av, for Average), relying on the Vermote–Justice–Bréon (VJB) BRDF method, assume no variation in space of the BRDF shape. Two methods (VI-dis, for NDVI-based disaggregation and LC-dis, for Land-Cover based disaggregation) are based on disaggregation of the MODIS-derived BRDF VJB parameters using vegetation index and land cover, respectively. The last technique (LUM, for Look-Up Map) relies on the MCD43 MODIS BRDF products and a crop type data layer. The VI-dis technique produced the lowest level of noise corresponding to the most effective adjustment: reduction from directional to normalized SR TS noises by 40% and 50% on average, for red and near-infrared bands, respectively. The uniform techniques displayed very good results, suggesting that a simple and uniform BRDF-shape assumption is good enough to adjust the BRDF in such geometric configuration (the view zenith angle varies from nadir to 25°). The most complex techniques relying on land cover (LC-dis and LUM) displayed contrasting results depending on the land cover. View Full-Text
Keywords: surface anisotropy; BRDF; SPOT4 (Take5); MODIS surface anisotropy; BRDF; SPOT4 (Take5); MODIS
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Claverie, M.; Vermote, E.; Franch, B.; He, T.; Hagolle, O.; Kadiri, M.; Masek, J. Evaluation of Medium Spatial Resolution BRDF-Adjustment Techniques Using Multi-Angular SPOT4 (Take5) Acquisitions. Remote Sens. 2015, 7, 12057-12075.

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