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Remote Sens. 2015, 7(8), 9769-9795; doi:10.3390/rs70809769

Coupled Ground- and Space-Based Assessment of Regional Inundation Dynamics to Assess Impact of Local and Upstream Changes on Evaporation in Tropical Wetlands

1
Chair of Hydrology, Faculty of Environment and Natural Resources, University of Freiburg, Fahnenbergplatz, 79098 Freiburg, Germany
2
Pos-Graduação em Física Ambiental, Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso (UFMT), Avenida Fernando Correa da Costa n° 2367, Boa Esperança, 78060900 Cuiabá, Brazil
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Richard Gloaguen and Prasad S. Thenkabail
Received: 17 March 2015 / Revised: 27 July 2015 / Accepted: 28 July 2015 / Published: 31 July 2015
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Abstract

Modifications of human land use and climate change are known to be a threat for the health and proper functioning of tropical wetlands. They interfere with the seasonal flood pulse, which is seen as the most important driver for biodiversity and directly controls evaporation. In order to investigate the impact of local and upstream changes on wetlands, a regional assessment of evaporation is crucial but challenging in such often remote and poorly gauged ecosystems. Evaporation is the major water balance component of these wetlands and links the flood pulse with the ecosystem. It can therefore be seen as a proxy for their functioning. In the last decades, information from space became an important data source to assess remote wetland areas. Here, we developed a new approach to quantify regional evaporation driven by inundation dynamics as its dominant control. We used three water and vegetation indices (mNDWI (modified Normalized Difference Water Index), NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index), and EVI (Enhanced Vegetation Index)) from MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) surface reflectance products to assess regional inundation dynamics between the dry and wet seasons. Two years of continual in situ water level measurements at different locations in our study area, the Pantanal wetland of South America, provided the reference to evaluate our method. With process-based modeling that used the inundation dynamics to determine the water available for evaporation, we were able to estimate actual evaporation (AET) on a regional scale. Relating AET to changes in discharge due to upstream flow modifications and on local precipitation over the last 13 years, we found that the Pantanal is more vulnerable to alternated inundation dynamics than to changes in local precipitation. We concluded that coupling ground- and space-based information in this remote wetland area is a valuable first step to investigate the status of the Pantanal ecosystem. View Full-Text
Keywords: Pantanal; MODIS; inundation; evaporation; tropical wetland; remoteness Pantanal; MODIS; inundation; evaporation; tropical wetland; remoteness
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Schwerdtfeger, J.; da Silveira, S.W.G.; Zeilhofer, P.; Weiler, M. Coupled Ground- and Space-Based Assessment of Regional Inundation Dynamics to Assess Impact of Local and Upstream Changes on Evaporation in Tropical Wetlands. Remote Sens. 2015, 7, 9769-9795.

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