Next Article in Journal
High-Resolution Precipitation Datasets in South America and West Africa based on Satellite-Derived Rainfall, Enhanced Vegetation Index and Digital Elevation Model
Next Article in Special Issue
Analysis of the Land Surface Temperature Scaling Problem: A Case Study of Airborne and Satellite Data over the Heihe Basin
Previous Article in Journal / Special Issue
A New Algorithm of the FPAR Product in the Heihe River Basin Considering the Contributions of Direct and Diffuse Solar Radiation Separately
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Remote Sens. 2015, 7(5), 6433-6453;

A Revised Temporal Scaling Method to Yield Better ET Estimates at a Regional Scale

State Key Laboratory of Loess and Quaternary Geology, Institute of Earth Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xi'an 710075, China
School of Geographical Sciences, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715, China
Key Laboratory of Highway Construction & Maintenance Technology in Permafrost Regions, Ministry of Transport, CCCC First Highway Consultants Co., LTD, Xi'an 710065, China
Cold and Arid Regions Environmental and Engineering Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000, China
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Yuei-An Liou, Qinhuo Liu, Xin Li, George P. Petropoulos and Prasad S. Thenkabail
Received: 18 December 2014 / Accepted: 15 May 2015 / Published: 21 May 2015
Full-Text   |   PDF [8031 KB, uploaded 21 May 2015]   |  


This study presents a revised temporal scaling method based on a detection algorithm for the temporal stability of the evaporative fraction (EF) to estimate total daytime evapotranspiration (ET) at a regional scale. The study area is located in the Heihe River Basin, which is the second largest inland river basin in China. The remote sensing data and field observations used in this study were obtained from the Heihe Watershed Allied Telemetry Experimental Research (HiWATER) project. The half-hourly EF values (EFEC) calculated using meteorological observations from an eddy covariance (EC) system and an automatic meteorological station (AMS) represented the diurnal pattern of the EF across the majority of the study area. The remotely sensed instantaneous midday EF (EFASTER), which indicates the spatial distribution of the midday EF over the entire study area, was calculated from an Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) image. The temporal stability of EFEC was examined using a detection algorithm. Intervals with inconsistent EFEC values were distinguished from those with consistent EFEC values; the total daytime ET (from 9:00 to 19:00) within these interval types was integrated separately. Validation of the total daytime ET at the satellite pixel scale was conducted using measurements from17 EC towers. Using the detection algorithm for the temporal stability of the EF and dynamic adjustment, the revised temporal scaling method resulted in a root-mean-square error (RMSE) of 0.54 (mm·d−1), a mean relative error (MRE) of 7.26% and a correlation coefficient (Corr.) of 0.81; all of these values were superior to those of the two other methods (i.e., the constant EF and variable EF methods). The revised method easily extends to other areas and exhibits a superior performance in flat and regularly-irrigated farmlands at the regional scale. View Full-Text
Keywords: arid irrigated farmlands; evapotranspiration; temporal scaling; evaporative fraction; regional scale arid irrigated farmlands; evapotranspiration; temporal scaling; evaporative fraction; regional scale

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Song, Y.; Ma, M.; Jin, L.; Wang, X. A Revised Temporal Scaling Method to Yield Better ET Estimates at a Regional Scale. Remote Sens. 2015, 7, 6433-6453.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Remote Sens. EISSN 2072-4292 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top