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Remote Sens. 2015, 7(3), 3400-3425; doi:10.3390/rs70303400

Temporal Upscaling and Reconstruction of Thermal Remotely Sensed Instantaneous Evapotranspiration

1
State Key Laboratory of Remote Sensing Science, Research Center for Remote Sensing and GIS, and School of Geography, Beijing Normal University, No.19, Xinjiekouwai Street, 100875 Beijing, China
2
Information Technology Department, National Library of China, No. 33, Zhongguancun Nandajie, 100081 Beijing, China
3
Yangzhou Environmental Monitoring Center, No.446, Yangzijiangbei Road, 225007 Yangzhou, China
4
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering and Water Resource Research Center, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, HI 96822, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Soe Myint and Prasad S. Thenkabail
Received: 13 January 2015 / Revised: 28 February 2015 / Accepted: 17 March 2015 / Published: 23 March 2015
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [18751 KB, uploaded 23 March 2015]   |  

Abstract

Currently, thermal remote sensing-based evapotranspiration (ET) models can only calculate instantaneous ET at the time of satellite overpass. Five temporal upscaling methods, namely, constant evaporative fraction (ConEF), corrected ConEF (CorEF), diurnal evaporative fraction (DiEF), constant solar radiation ratio (SolRad), and constant reference evaporative fraction (ConETrF), were selected to upscale the instantaneous ET to daily values. Moreover, five temporal reconstruction approaches, namely, data assimilation (ET_EnKF and ET_SCE_UA), surface resistance (ET_SR), reference evapotranspiration (ET_ETrF), and harmonic analysis of time series (ET_HANTS), were used to produce continuous daily ET with discrete clear-sky daily ET values. For clear-sky daily ET generation, SolRad and ConETrF produced the best estimates. In contrast, ConEF usually underestimated the daily ET. The optimum method, however, was found by combining SolRad and ConETrF, which produced the lowest root-mean-square error (RMSE) values. For continuous daily ET production, ET_ETrF and ET_SCE_UA performed the best, whereas the ET_SR and ET_HANTS methods had large errors. The annual ET distributions over the Beijing area were calculated with these methods. The spatial ET distributions from ET_ETrF and ET_SCE_UA had the same trend as ETWatch products, and had a smaller RMSE when compared with ET observations derived from the water balance method. View Full-Text
Keywords: evapotranspiration; thermal remote sensing; temporal upscaling; continuously daily ET reconstruction; regional ET production evapotranspiration; thermal remote sensing; temporal upscaling; continuously daily ET reconstruction; regional ET production
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Xu, T.; Liu, S.; Xu, L.; Chen, Y.; Jia, Z.; Xu, Z.; Nielson, J. Temporal Upscaling and Reconstruction of Thermal Remotely Sensed Instantaneous Evapotranspiration. Remote Sens. 2015, 7, 3400-3425.

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