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Remote Sens. 2015, 7(12), 16901-16914; doi:10.3390/rs71215862

The Effect of Epidermal Structures on Leaf Spectral Signatures of Ice Plants (Aizoaceae)

1
Biodiversity Ecology and Evolution of Plants, Biocenter Klein Flottbek and Botanical Garden, University of Hamburg, Ohnhorststraße 18, 22609 Hamburg, Germany
2
Institute of Landscape Ecology, Heisenbergstraße 2, 48149 Münster, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Eyal Ben-Dor, Clement Atzberger and Prasad S. Thenkabail
Received: 1 October 2015 / Revised: 26 November 2015 / Accepted: 6 December 2015 / Published: 15 December 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Field Spectroscopy and Radiometry)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [2305 KB, uploaded 28 December 2015]   |  

Abstract

Epidermal structures (ES) of leaves are known to affect the functional properties and spectral responses. Spectral studies focused mostly on the effect of hairs or wax layers only. We studied a wider range of different ES and their impact on spectral properties. Additionally, we identified spectral regions that allow distinguishing different ES. We used a field spectrometer to measure ex situ leaf spectral responses from 350 nm–2500 nm. A spectral library for 25 species of the succulent family Aizoaceae was assembled. Five functional types were defined based on ES: flat epidermal cell surface, convex to papillary epidermal cell surface, bladder cells, hairs and wax cover. We tested the separability of ES using partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) based on the spectral data. Subsequently, variable importance (VIP) was calculated to identify spectral regions relevant for discriminating our functional types (classes). Classification performance was high, with a kappa value of 0.9 indicating well-separable spectral classes. VIP calculations identified six spectral regions of increased importance for the classification. We confirmed and extended previous findings regarding the visible-near-infrared spectral region. Our experiments also confirmed that epidermal leaf traits can be classified due to clearly distinguishable spectral signatures across species and genera within the Aizoaceae. View Full-Text
Keywords: Aizoaceae; biophysical properties; leaf epidermis; field spectrometry; hyperspectral classification; leaf traits; optical types; plant functional types; succulent plants Aizoaceae; biophysical properties; leaf epidermis; field spectrometry; hyperspectral classification; leaf traits; optical types; plant functional types; succulent plants
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Heim, R.H.-J.; Jürgens, N.; Große-Stoltenberg, A.; Oldeland, J. The Effect of Epidermal Structures on Leaf Spectral Signatures of Ice Plants (Aizoaceae). Remote Sens. 2015, 7, 16901-16914.

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