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Remote Sens. 2015, 7(11), 14967-14987; doi:10.3390/rs71114967

Quantifying Effusion Rates at Active Volcanoes through Integrated Time-Lapse Laser Scanning and Photography

1
Lancaster Environment Centre, Lancaster University, Lancaster LA1 4YQ, UK
2
Laser Mapping Ltd, Unit 1, Moorbridge Court, Moorbridge Road East, Bingham, Nottingham NG13 8GG, UK
3
Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Osservatorio Etneo—Sezione di Catania, Piazza Roma 2, Catania I-95125, Italy
4
Department of Earth Sciences, Royal Holloway, University of London, Egham TW20 0EX, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Antonio Abellan, Marc-Henri Derron, Michel Jaboyedoff, Zhong Lu and Prasad S. Thenkabail
Received: 28 June 2015 / Revised: 29 October 2015 / Accepted: 29 October 2015 / Published: 10 November 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Use of LiDAR and 3D point clouds in Geohazards)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1266 KB, uploaded 10 November 2015]   |  

Abstract

During volcanic eruptions, measurements of the rate at which magma is erupted underpin hazard assessments. For eruptions dominated by the effusion of lava, estimates are often made using satellite data; here, in a case study at Mount Etna (Sicily), we make the first measurements based on terrestrial laser scanning (TLS), and we also include explosive products. During the study period (17–21 July 2012), regular Strombolian explosions were occurring within the Bocca Nuova crater, producing a ~50 m-high scoria cone and a small lava flow field. TLS surveys over multi-day intervals determined a mean cone growth rate (effusive and explosive products) of ~0.24 m3·s−1. Differences between 0.3-m resolution DEMs acquired at 10-minute intervals captured the evolution of a breakout lava flow lobe advancing at 0.01–0.03 m3·s−1. Partial occlusion within the crater prevented similar measurement of the main flow, but integrating TLS data with time-lapse imagery enabled lava viscosity (7.4 × 105 Pa·s) to be derived from surface velocities and, hence, a flux of 0.11 m3·s−1 to be calculated. Total dense rock equivalent magma discharge estimates are ~0.1–0.2 m3·s−1 over the measurement period and suggest that simultaneous estimates from satellite data are somewhat overestimated. Our results support the use of integrated TLS and time-lapse photography for ground-truthing space-based measurements and highlight the value of interactive image analysis when automated approaches, such as particle image velocimetry (PIV), fail. View Full-Text
Keywords: lava flow; scoria cone; effusion rate; terrestrial laser scanning; time-lapse photography; Mt. Etna lava flow; scoria cone; effusion rate; terrestrial laser scanning; time-lapse photography; Mt. Etna
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Slatcher, N.; James, M.R.; Calvari, S.; Ganci, G.; Browning, J. Quantifying Effusion Rates at Active Volcanoes through Integrated Time-Lapse Laser Scanning and Photography. Remote Sens. 2015, 7, 14967-14987.

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