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Remote Sens. 2015, 7(10), 14227-14258; doi:10.3390/rs71014227

The Potential of EnMAP and Sentinel-2 Data for Detecting Drought Stress Phenomena in Deciduous Forest Communities

Environmental Remote Sensing and Geoinformatics, University of Trier, Behringstr. 21, 54286 Trier, Germany
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Saskia Foerster, Véronique Carrere, Michael Rast, Karl Staenz, Magaly Koch and Prasad S. Thenkabail
Received: 29 July 2015 / Revised: 14 October 2015 / Accepted: 20 October 2015 / Published: 27 October 2015
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Abstract

Given the importance of forest ecosystems, the availability of reliable, spatially explicit information about the site-specific climate sensitivity of tree species is essential for implementing suitable adaptation strategies. In this study, airborne hyperspectral data were used to assess the response of deciduous species (dominated by European beech and Sessile and Pedunculate oak) to water stress during a summery dry spell. After masking canopy gaps, shaded crown areas and non-deciduous species, potentially indicative spectral indices, the Photochemical Reflectance Index (PRI), Moisture Stress Index (MSI), Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI), and Chlorophyll Index (CI), were analyzed with respect to available maps of site-specific soil moisture regimes. PRI provided an important indication of site-specific photosynthetic stress on leaf level in relation to limitations in soil water availability. The CI, MSI and NDWI revealed statistically significant differences in total chlorophyll and water concentration at the canopy level. However, after reducing the canopy effects by normalizing these indices with respect to the structure-sensitive simple ratio (SR) vegetation index, it was not yet possible to identify site-specific concentration differences in leaf level at this early stage of the drought. The selected indicators were also tested with simulated EnMAP and Sentinel-2 data (derived from the original airborne data set). While PRI proved to be useful also in the spatial resolution of EnMAP (GSD = 30 m), this was not the case with Sentinel-2, owing to the lack of adequate spectral bands; the remaining indicators (MSI, CI, SR) were also successfully produced with Sentinel-2 data at superior spatial resolution (GSD = 10 m). The study confirms the importance of using earth observation systems for supplementing traditional ecological site classification maps, particularly during dry spells and heat waves when ecological gradients are increasingly reflected in the spectral response at the tree crown level. It also underlined the importance of using Sentinel-2 and EnMAP in synergy, as soon as both systems become available. View Full-Text
Keywords: hyperspectral imaging; global warming; drought stress; early detection; spectral indicators; water and chlorophyll concentration; PRI; European beech; EnMAP; Sentinel-2 hyperspectral imaging; global warming; drought stress; early detection; spectral indicators; water and chlorophyll concentration; PRI; European beech; EnMAP; Sentinel-2
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Dotzler, S.; Hill, J.; Buddenbaum, H.; Stoffels, J. The Potential of EnMAP and Sentinel-2 Data for Detecting Drought Stress Phenomena in Deciduous Forest Communities. Remote Sens. 2015, 7, 14227-14258.

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