Next Article in Journal
Evaluation of Polarized Remote Sensing of Aerosol Optical Thickness Retrieval over China
Next Article in Special Issue
An Automated Approach for Mapping Persistent Ice and Snow Cover over High Latitude Regions
Previous Article in Journal / Special Issue
Monitoring the Variation in Ice-Cover Characteristics of the Slave River, Canada Using RADARSAT-2 Data—A Case Study
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Remote Sens. 2015, 7(10), 13692-13710; doi:10.3390/rs71013692

Reconstructing Turbidity in a Glacially Influenced Lake Using the Landsat TM and ETM+ Surface Reflectance Climate Data Record Archive, Lake Clark, Alaska

1
Alaska Science Center, U.S. Geological Survey, 4210 University Drive, Anchorage, AK 99508, USA
2
Southwest Alaska Network, National Park Service, 240 W. 5th Ave., Anchorage, AK 99501, USA
3
Lake Clark National Park and Preserve, National Park Service, One Park Place, Port Alsworth, AK 99653, USA
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Daniel J. Hayes, Santonu Goswami, Guido Grosse, Xiaofeng Li and Prasad S. Thenkabail
Received: 29 June 2015 / Revised: 13 October 2015 / Accepted: 14 October 2015 / Published: 20 October 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Remote Sensing of Changing Northern High Latitude Ecosystems)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [963 KB, uploaded 20 October 2015]   |  

Abstract

Lake Clark is an important nursery lake for sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) in the headwaters of Bristol Bay, Alaska, the most productive wild salmon fishery in the world. Reductions in water clarity within Alaska lake systems as a result of increased glacial runoff have been shown to reduce salmon production via reduced abundance of zooplankton and macroinvertebrates. In this study, we reconstruct long-term, lake-wide water clarity for Lake Clark using the Landsat TM and ETM+ surface reflectance products (1985–2014) and in situ water clarity data collected between 2009 and 2013. Analysis of a Landsat scene acquired in 2009, coincident with in situ measurements in the lake, and uncertainty analysis with four scenes acquired within two weeks of field data collection showed that Band 3 surface reflectance was the best indicator of turbidity (r2 = 0.55, RMSE << 0.01). We then processed 151 (98 partial- and 53 whole-lake) Landsat scenes using this relation and detected no significant long-term trend in mean turbidity for Lake Clark between 1991 and 2014. We did, however, detect interannual variation that exhibited a non-significant (r2 = 0.20) but positive correlation (r = 0.20) with regional mean summer air temperature and found the month of May exhibited a significant positive trend (r2 = 0.68, p = 0.02) in turbidity between 2000 and 2014. This study demonstrates the utility of hindcasting turbidity in a glacially influenced lake using the Landsat surface reflectance products. It may also help land and resource managers reconstruct turbidity records for lakes that lack in situ monitoring, and may be useful in predicting future water clarity conditions based on projected climate scenarios. View Full-Text
Keywords: Climate Data Records; essential climate variables; Landsat TM; Landsat ETM+; Lake Clark; turbidity; sockeye salmon; water clarity; freshwater ecosystems Climate Data Records; essential climate variables; Landsat TM; Landsat ETM+; Lake Clark; turbidity; sockeye salmon; water clarity; freshwater ecosystems
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Baughman, C.A.; Jones, B.M.; Bartz, K.K.; Young, D.B.; Zimmerman, C.E. Reconstructing Turbidity in a Glacially Influenced Lake Using the Landsat TM and ETM+ Surface Reflectance Climate Data Record Archive, Lake Clark, Alaska. Remote Sens. 2015, 7, 13692-13710.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Remote Sens. EISSN 2072-4292 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top