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Remote Sens. 2015, 7(10), 13626-13640; doi:10.3390/rs71013626

Semi-Empirical Calibration of the Integral Equation Model for Co-Polarized L-Band Backscattering

1
IRSTEA, UMR TETIS, 500 rue François Breton, F-34093 Montpellier cedex 5, France
2
CESBIO, 18 av. Edouard Belin, bpi 2801, 31401Toulouse cedex 9, France
3
CNR-IFAC, via Madonna del Piano 10, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Firenze, Italy
4
Laboratory of Hydrology and Water Management, Ghent University, Ghent B-9000, Belgium
5
CNR-ISSIA, via Amendola 122/D, Bari 70126, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Ioannis Gitas, Josef Kellndorfer, Magaly Koch and Prasad S. Thenkabail
Received: 25 March 2015 / Revised: 13 October 2015 / Accepted: 14 October 2015 / Published: 20 October 2015
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [704 KB, uploaded 23 October 2015]   |  

Abstract

The objective of this paper is to extend the semi-empirical calibration of the backscattering Integral Equation Model (IEM) initially proposed for Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) data at C- and X-bands to SAR data at L-band. A large dataset of radar signal and in situ measurements (soil moisture and surface roughness) over bare soil surfaces were used. This dataset was collected over numerous agricultural study sites in France, Luxembourg, Belgium, Germany and Italy using various SAR sensors (AIRSAR, SIR-C, JERS-1, PALSAR-1, ESAR). Results showed slightly better simulations with exponential autocorrelation function than with Gaussian function and with HH than with VV. Using the exponential autocorrelation function, the mean difference between experimental data and Integral Equation Model (IEM) simulations is +0.4 dB in HH and −1.2 dB in VV with a Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) about 3.5 dB. In order to improve the modeling results of the IEM for a better use in the inversion of SAR data, a semi-empirical calibration of the IEM was performed at L-band in replacing the correlation length derived from field experiments by a fitting parameter. Better agreement was observed between the backscattering coefficient provided by the SAR and that simulated by the calibrated version of the IEM (RMSE about 2.2 dB). View Full-Text
Keywords: integral equation model; synthetic aperture radar; L-band; bare soil integral equation model; synthetic aperture radar; L-band; bare soil
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Baghdadi, N.; Zribi, M.; Paloscia, S.; Verhoest, N.E.C.; Lievens, H.; Baup, F.; Mattia, F. Semi-Empirical Calibration of the Integral Equation Model for Co-Polarized L-Band Backscattering. Remote Sens. 2015, 7, 13626-13640.

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