Remote Sens. 2014, 6(4), 2989-3019; doi:10.3390/rs6042989
Article

Probability Density Components Analysis: A New Approach to Treatment and Classification of SAR Images

1,* email, 2email, 2email, 1email, 1email, 1email and 3email
Received: 30 September 2013; in revised form: 3 March 2014 / Accepted: 6 March 2014 / Published: 1 April 2014
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Abstract: Speckle noise (salt and pepper) is inherent to synthetic aperture radar (SAR), which causes a usual noise-like granular aspect and complicates the image classification. In SAR image analysis, the spatial information might be a particular benefit for denoising and mapping classes characterized by a statistical distribution of the pixel intensities from a complex and heterogeneous spectral response. This paper proposes the Probability Density Components Analysis (PDCA), a new alternative that combines filtering and frequency histogram to improve the classification procedure for the single-channel synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images. This method was tested on L-band SAR data from the Advanced Land Observation System (ALOS) Phased-Array Synthetic-Aperture Radar (PALSAR) sensor. The study area is localized in the Brazilian Amazon rainforest, northern Rondônia State (municipality of Candeias do Jamari), containing forest and land use patterns. The proposed algorithm uses a moving window over the image, estimating the probability density curve in different image components. Therefore, a single input image generates an output with multi-components. Initially the multi-components should be treated by noise-reduction methods, such as maximum noise fraction (MNF) or noise-adjusted principal components (NAPCs). Both methods enable reducing noise as well as the ordering of multi-component data in terms of the image quality. In this paper, the NAPC applied to multi-components provided large reductions in the noise levels, and the color composites considering the first NAPC enhance the classification of different surface features. In the spectral classification, the Spectral Correlation Mapper and Minimum Distance were used. The results obtained presented as similar to the visual interpretation of optical images from TM-Landsat and Google Maps.
Keywords: Amazon forest; ALOS; PALSAR; frequency histogram
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

de Carvalho Júnior, O.A.; Maciel, L.M.M.; de Carvalho, A.P.F.; Guimarães, R.F.; Silva, C.R.; Gomes, R.A.T.; Silva, N.C. Probability Density Components Analysis: A New Approach to Treatment and Classification of SAR Images. Remote Sens. 2014, 6, 2989-3019.

AMA Style

de Carvalho Júnior OA, Maciel LMM, de Carvalho APF, Guimarães RF, Silva CR, Gomes RAT, Silva NC. Probability Density Components Analysis: A New Approach to Treatment and Classification of SAR Images. Remote Sensing. 2014; 6(4):2989-3019.

Chicago/Turabian Style

de Carvalho Júnior, Osmar A.; Maciel, Luz M.M.; de Carvalho, Ana P.F.; Guimarães, Renato F.; Silva, Cristiano R.; Gomes, Roberto A.T.; Silva, Nilton C. 2014. "Probability Density Components Analysis: A New Approach to Treatment and Classification of SAR Images." Remote Sens. 6, no. 4: 2989-3019.


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