Remote Sens. 2014, 6(2), 1026-1056; doi:10.3390/rs6021026
Article

Integration of Satellite Imagery, Topography and Human Disturbance Factors Based on Canonical Correspondence Analysis Ordination for Mountain Vegetation Mapping: A Case Study in Yunnan, China

Received: 27 November 2013; in revised form: 7 January 2014 / Accepted: 10 January 2014 / Published: 27 January 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Satellite Mapping Technology and Application)
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract: The integration between vegetation data, human disturbance factors, and geo-spatial data (Digital Elevation Model (DEM) and image data) is a particular challenge for vegetation mapping in mountainous areas. The present study aimed to incorporate the relationships between species distribution (or vegetation spatial distribution pattern) and topography and human disturbance factors with remote sensing data, to improve the accuracy of mountain vegetation maps. Two different mountainous areas located in Lancang (Mekong) watershed served as study sites. An Artificial Neural Network (ANN) architecture classification was used as image classification protocol. In addition, canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) ordination was applied to address the relationships between topography and human disturbance factors with the spatial distribution of vegetation patterns. We used ordinary kriging at unobserved locations to predict the CCA scores. The CCA ordination results showed that the vegetation spatial distribution patterns are strongly affected by topography and human disturbance factors. The overall accuracy of vegetation classification was significantly improved by incorporating DEM or four CCA axes as additional channels in both the northern and southern study areas. However, there was no significant difference between using DEM or four CCA axes as extra channels in the northern steep mountainous areas because of a strong redundancy between CCA axes and DEM data. In the southern lower mountainous areas, the accuracy was significantly higher using four CCA axes as extra bands, compared to using DEM as an extra band. In the southern study area, the variance of vegetation data explained by human disturbance factors was larger than the variance explained by topographic attributes.
Keywords: mountain vegetation; DEM; topography; human disturbance factors; CCA; ordinary kriging
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MDPI and ACS Style

Zhang, Z.; van Coillie, F.; Ou, X.; de Wulf, R. Integration of Satellite Imagery, Topography and Human Disturbance Factors Based on Canonical Correspondence Analysis Ordination for Mountain Vegetation Mapping: A Case Study in Yunnan, China. Remote Sens. 2014, 6, 1026-1056.

AMA Style

Zhang Z, van Coillie F, Ou X, de Wulf R. Integration of Satellite Imagery, Topography and Human Disturbance Factors Based on Canonical Correspondence Analysis Ordination for Mountain Vegetation Mapping: A Case Study in Yunnan, China. Remote Sensing. 2014; 6(2):1026-1056.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Zhang, Zhiming; van Coillie, Frieke; Ou, Xiaokun; de Wulf, Robert. 2014. "Integration of Satellite Imagery, Topography and Human Disturbance Factors Based on Canonical Correspondence Analysis Ordination for Mountain Vegetation Mapping: A Case Study in Yunnan, China." Remote Sens. 6, no. 2: 1026-1056.

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