Next Article in Journal
On-Orbit Radiometric Performance of the Landsat 8 Thermal Infrared Sensor
Previous Article in Journal
Cultivated Land Information Extraction and Gradient Analysis for a North-South Transect in Northeast Asia between 2000 and 2010
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Remote Sens. 2014, 6(12), 11731-11752; doi:10.3390/rs61211731

Quantifying the Physical Composition of Urban Morphology throughout Wales Based on the Time Series (1989–2011) Analysis of Landsat TM/ETM+ Images and Supporting GIS Data

1
Department of Geography & Earth Sciences, Aberystwyth University, Llandinam Building, Penglais Campus, Aberystwyth, SY23 3DB, Wales, UK
2
Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Bush Estate, Penicuik, Midlothian, EH26 0QB, Scotland, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 16 July 2014 / Revised: 28 October 2014 / Accepted: 30 October 2014 / Published: 25 November 2014
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [5204 KB, uploaded 25 November 2014]   |  

Abstract

Knowledge of impervious surface areas (ISA) and on their changes in magnitude, location, geometry and morphology over time is significant for a range of practical applications and research alike from local to global scales. Despite this, use of Earth Observation (EO) technology in mapping ISAs within some European Union (EU) countries, such as the United Kingdom (UK), is to some extent scarce. In the present study, a combination of methods is proposed for mapping ISA based on freely distributed EO imagery from Landsat TM/ETM+ sensors. The proposed technique combines a traditional classifier and a linear spectral mixture analysis (LSMA) with a series of Landsat TM/ETM+ images to extract ISA. Selected sites located in Wales, UK, are used for demonstrating the capability of the proposed method. The Welsh study areas provided a unique setting in detecting largely dispersed urban morphology within an urban-rural frontier context. In addition, an innovative method for detecting clouds and cloud shadow layers for the full area estimation of ISA is also presented herein. The removal and replacement of clouds and cloud shadows, with underlying materials is further explained. Aerial photography with a spatial resolution of 0.4 m, acquired over the summer period in 2005 was used for validation purposes. Validation of the derived products indicated an overall ISA detection accuracy in the order of ~97%. The latter was considered as very satisfactory and at least comparative, if not somehow better, to existing ISA products provided on a national level. The hybrid method for ISA extraction proposed here is important on a local scale in terms of moving forward into a biennial program for the Welsh Government. It offers a much less subjectively static and more objectively dynamic estimation of ISA cover in comparison to existing operational products already available, improving the current estimations of international urbanization and soil sealing. Findings of our study provide important assistance towards the development of relevant EO-based products not only inaugurate to Wales alone, but potentially allowing a cost-effective and consistent long term monitoring of ISA at different scales based on EO technology. View Full-Text
Keywords: Wales; Landsat; impervious surface estimation; multi-temporal imagery; object-orientated method Wales; Landsat; impervious surface estimation; multi-temporal imagery; object-orientated method
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Scott, D.; Petropoulos, G.P.; Moxley, J.; Malcolm, H. Quantifying the Physical Composition of Urban Morphology throughout Wales Based on the Time Series (1989–2011) Analysis of Landsat TM/ETM+ Images and Supporting GIS Data. Remote Sens. 2014, 6, 11731-11752.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Remote Sens. EISSN 2072-4292 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top