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Remote Sens. 2014, 6(11), 11204-11224; doi:10.3390/rs61111204

Applying Spectral Unmixing to Determine Surface Water Parameters in a Mining Environment

1
Czech Geological Survey, Remote Sensing Department, Prague 118 21, Czech Republic
2
Department of Applied Geoinformatics and Cartography, Faculty of Science, Charles University in Prague, Prague 128 43, Czech Republic
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 25 July 2014 / Revised: 16 October 2014 / Accepted: 23 October 2014 / Published: 13 November 2014
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Abstract

Compared to natural waters, mine waters represent an extreme water type that is frequently heavily polluted. Although they have been traditionally monitored by in situ measurements of point samples taken at regular intervals, the emergence of a new generation of multispectral and hyperspectral (HS) sensors means that image spectroscopy has the potential to become a modern method for monitoring polluted surface waters. This paper describes an approach employing linear Spectral Unmixing (LSU) for analysis of hyperspectral image data to map the relative abundances of mine water components (dissolved Fe—Fediss, dissolved organic carbon—DOC, undissolved particles). The ground truth data (8 monitored ponds) were used to validate the results of spectral mapping. The same approach applied to HS data was tested using the image data resampled to WorldView2 (WV2) spectral resolution. A key aspect of the image data processing was to define the proper pure image end members for the fundamental water types. The highest correlations detected between the studied water parameters and the fractional images using the HyMap and the resampled WV2 data, respectively, were: dissolved Fe (R2 = 0.74 and R2vw2 = 0.6), undissolved particles (R2 = 0.57 and R2vw2 = 0.49) and DOC (R2 = 0.42 and R2vw2 < 0.40). These fractional images were further classified to create semi-quantitative maps. In conclusion, the classification still benefited from the higher spectral resolution of the HyMap data; however the WV2 reflectance data can be suitable for mapping specific inherent optical properties (SIOPs), which significantly differ from one another from an optical point of view (e.g., mineral suspension, dissolved Fe and phytoplankton), but it seems difficult to differentiate among diverse suspension particles, especially when the waters have more complex properties (e.g., mineral particles, DOC together with tripton or other particles, etc.). View Full-Text
Keywords: image spectroscopy; water spectroscopy; mine waters; Linear Spectral Unmixing; dissolved Fe; dissolved organic carbon—DOC; hyperspectral data; HyMap; World View 2 image spectroscopy; water spectroscopy; mine waters; Linear Spectral Unmixing; dissolved Fe; dissolved organic carbon—DOC; hyperspectral data; HyMap; World View 2
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Kopačková, V.; Hladíková, L. Applying Spectral Unmixing to Determine Surface Water Parameters in a Mining Environment. Remote Sens. 2014, 6, 11204-11224.

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