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Remote Sens. 2013, 5(9), 4405-4422; doi:10.3390/rs5094405
Article

Ultraviolet Fluorescence LiDAR (UFL) as a Measurement Tool for Water Quality Parameters in Turbid Lake Conditions

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Received: 23 July 2013; in revised form: 4 September 2013 / Accepted: 5 September 2013 / Published: 11 September 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Remote Sensing of Phytoplankton)
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Abstract: Despite longstanding contributions to oceanography, similar use of fluorescence light detection and ranging (LiDAR) in lake settings is not routine. The potential for ship-mounted, multispectral Ultraviolet Fluorescence LiDAR (UFL) to provide rapid, high-resolution data in variably turbid and productive lake conditions are investigated here through a series of laboratory tank and field measurements carried out on Lake Balaton, Hungary. UFL data, calibrated empirically to a set of coinciding conventionally-analyzed samples, provide simultaneous estimates of three important parameters-chlorophyll a(chla), total suspended matter (TSM) and colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM). Successful UFL retrievals from both laboratory and field measurements were achieved for chla (0.01–378 mg∙m−3; R = 0.83–0.92), TSM (0.1–130 g∙m−3; R = 0.90–0.96) and CDOM (0.003–0.125 aCDOM(440); R = 0.80–0.97). Fluorescence emission at 685 nm is shown through tank measurements to display robust but distinct relationships with chla concentration for the two cultured algae species investigated (cyanobacteria, Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii, and chlorophyta, Scenedesmus armatus). The ratio between fluorescence emissions measured at 650 nm, related to the phycocyanin fluorescence maximum, to that at 685 nm is demonstrated to effectively distinguish these two species. Validation through both laboratory measurements and field measurements confirmed that site specific calibration is necessary. This study presents the first known assessment and application of ship-mounted fluorescence LiDAR in freshwater lake conditions and demonstrates the use of UFL in measuring important water quality parameters despite the more complicated hydro-optic conditions of inland waters.
Keywords: fluorescence emission; LiDAR; remote sensing; chlorophyll a; total suspended matter; CDOM; Lake Balaton fluorescence emission; LiDAR; remote sensing; chlorophyll a; total suspended matter; CDOM; Lake Balaton
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Palmer, S.C.; Pelevin, V.V.; Goncharenko, I.; Kovács, A.W.; Zlinszky, A.; Présing, M.; Horváth, H.; Nicolás-Perea, V.; Balzter, H.; Tóth, V.R. Ultraviolet Fluorescence LiDAR (UFL) as a Measurement Tool for Water Quality Parameters in Turbid Lake Conditions. Remote Sens. 2013, 5, 4405-4422.

AMA Style

Palmer SC, Pelevin VV, Goncharenko I, Kovács AW, Zlinszky A, Présing M, Horváth H, Nicolás-Perea V, Balzter H, Tóth VR. Ultraviolet Fluorescence LiDAR (UFL) as a Measurement Tool for Water Quality Parameters in Turbid Lake Conditions. Remote Sensing. 2013; 5(9):4405-4422.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Palmer, Stephanie C.; Pelevin, Vadim V.; Goncharenko, Igor; Kovács, Attila W.; Zlinszky, András; Présing, Mátyás; Horváth, Hajnalka; Nicolás-Perea, Virginia; Balzter, Heiko; Tóth, Viktor R. 2013. "Ultraviolet Fluorescence LiDAR (UFL) as a Measurement Tool for Water Quality Parameters in Turbid Lake Conditions." Remote Sens. 5, no. 9: 4405-4422.


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